Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Programme Management Program Management - 1121 Words

Programme Management Approach There is confusion in literature regarding the definition of programme management. Tjahjana, Dwyer and Habib (2009) describe programme management as the alignment of ongoing projects within an organization. Pennypacker and Ritchie (2005), on the other hand, define it as the application of knowledge, skills and techniques to programme activities to meet the programme requirements. Morris and Jamieson (2004) argue that most companies consider that programme management implies the management of business benefits as well as the ideas of the product, brand, or resource management. It is about the daily management of programmes to deliver business value. Programme management is a fundamental method for ensuring maximum benefits for an organisation from integration of project management activities. It is a tool of strategic reflection (Morris and Jamieson, 2004). According to Mlybari (2011), programme management’s key feature is business sponsorship. Therefore, the business needs to sponsor the programmes based on decisions at portfolio management level. Programme management provides benefits such as delivering more strategic objectives, increasing efficiency, reducing risk and providing information to support the core business of an organization, besides ensuring that the strategic delivery of each project is consistent with that of other projects and their own strategies (Mlybari, 2011). In the United Kingdom, the Office of Government CommerceShow MoreRelatedA Study on State Life Insurance Corporation in Pakistan Essay1726 Words   |  7 PagesEmployee Perception and Attitude towards Effective Training Program: A Study on State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan INTRODUCTION: The prosperity of any organization depends on felicitous utilization of human assets available in the organization. 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Since the start of globalisation and rapid migration across countries in the last 100Read MoreCompare the Quality Management of Mcdonalds Restaurants and Kentucky Fried Chicken1240 Words   |  5 PagesA) The Management of internal culture, morale and development of staff As business evolves and customer service standards are set ever higher, it is no longer possible for the training of frontline staff to concentrate solely on providing specific skill sets or outlining required practices in the workplace. Nowadays, employees must also be shown how to develop the desired mindset, so that they can then be trusted to use their initiative when solving problems and interacting with clients. BothRead MoreNike Crm971 Words   |  4 PagesEvaluation of Nike’s CRM programme Nike’s Rationale for implementing CRM programme In nowadays business world, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is an essential for a business strategy for every company. Our chosen company is Nike, one of the largest supplier of sportswear which include shoes and apparel. Implementation of CRM programme is a essential for every successful company. Customer Relationship Management is the core business strategy that integrates internal processes and functionsRead MoreWengart Aircraft1425 Words   |  6 PagesWengart Aircraft Question 1: Driving and restraining forces toward acceptance of the TQM program at the top management level 1. No Programme and Project Change Management Office Larsen is trying to execute a big change by simply sending a memo to the heads, there is no proper planning and no well thought-out execution or implementation strategy which would have taken issue of psychological impact on the employees into consideration. 2. Not a learning organisation

Monday, December 16, 2019

Attention levels in children Free Essays

Topic: Observe a child of under five years and comment on their attention levels in relation to the research carried out by Cooper, Moodey and Reynell (’78). Is their attention at an age appropriate level? Child observed: Hamza Age: 1 year 5 months Attention level develops as a child grows, it develops with age, helping a child concentrate better on his surroundings and learn new things. It is also very important for language development. We will write a custom essay sample on Attention levels in children or any similar topic only for you Order Now Hamza is a one and a half year old child who is ery active and is seen getting into mischief at all times of the day. He has a single track of mind when it comes to doing things his way and he is seen playing with his toys for hardly a few minutes at a time. He is fonder of playing with electrical appliances and will cry and whine until he gets what he wants. Then one can see him playing and laughing for a long time. One of his favourite activities is playing with a torch light. He will sit on the floor and play with it, switching it on and off, until its atteries run out. Then he starts to whine and his attention has to be diverted with another activity. Hamza likes to open and close the drawers, causing frequent mishaps. At this time, he is not willing to listen to anyone who calls him and does not respond to his name being called out. At times, he screams if he is called over and over again while he is playing with the drawers, indicating that he did not like the interruption. He will rush back into the room and start opening them and exploring he contents of the drawer if someone carries him out and tries to divert his attention. Thus, he displays the rigid attention stage, as he is not easily distracted from his activities. The best way of distracting him is by getting him to play hide and seek. He will forget all about his mischievous activities and rush to search anyone who is hiding, peeping behind the curtains. Then one can see him playing for hours at an end, and frequently the adults get tired of his innocent play, but he continues o play happily, running to go and hide behind the curtains. Here again he displays the rigid attention stage, where he has to be distracted by an activity which he enjoys and the adult ahs to follow his lead, thus motivating him. He displays bouts of anger when he does not get what he wants or when things are not done as he pleases. His rigid attention stage is visible once again when it is time for him to eat. He will not eat a single morsel of food, no matter how he is coaxed until he sees an airplane flying by. As he s busy waving â€Å"Bye! to the airplane, one places a morsel of food into his mouth. After that his mother plays with him as she helps him finish his meal. At this stage he is beyond the fleeting attention stage, as he is better able to concentrate on what he is doing and enjoy his activities. However, he displays clear signs of rigid behavior at this age. Thus, his attention levels are at an age appropriate level in relation to the research by Cooper, Moodey and Reynell. How to cite Attention levels in children, Papers

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Andy Warhol`s Famous Marilyn Monroe Painting Essay Example For Students

Andy Warhol`s Famous Marilyn Monroe Painting Essay The art of Andy Warhol is a analysis on the condition of society and the obsession with fame and the famous. This included Andy, as he was completely enchanted by the American royalty status of movie stars and celebrities, He was overwhelmed by the power that TV network had over the ordinary person and saw the glowing box as something that was worshiped more often than most people go to church. His art reflected his belief in that by taking what we may see as just part of our everyday life and showing us how embedded it is in our psyche and in everything that eve do. OK at the Campbell Soup Can art canvas series. Is it just a soup can? Was it a just a soup can before Whorls works became acclaimed? No, Campbell Soup was yet a well popular household name. Did Warhol paint them because it meant something? Warhol stated that the paintings represented nothing. No intent, no concept and no meaning. Art however is not about the artists intention; it is about the receivers application Of the ir own meaning. Every decade that goes by, there Will be new meanings applied to an artists works depending on the events of the age in which they are viewed. Whorls artworks could today be viewed as an expose on the condition of our throw away lifestyle. This could even be said about Whorls Marilyn Monroe canvas. As well as a can of the Campbell Soup, Marilyn was iconic, soaked her admirers with a warm, good feeling and then was recklessly emptied and thrown away. In the great stretch to time, suppose Warhol was accurate, the paintings are of nothing, the soup means nothing and maybe Marilyn was treated by society in the very same way. So many people admire her now, even nowadays. Can a persons life and accomplishments be consolidated to a acrylic painting that represents nothing? Whorls paintings can absolutely make one think about vat the priorities of human race are. The things that we put so much importance on are so fleeting and when they are made larger than life on a acrylic painting, they force us to account our mortality. Plenty Of Whorls artworks were in a way tied very closely to religion. He created use of gold leaf in the tradition of iconic paintings of Byzantine Catholics. In Gold Marilyn Monroe depicts her iconic Status, the affection Of her admirers and the sheer lonesomeness of her life. Her face is painted as if she were in a newsprint advertising, another throw away in our lives. Warhol continually brought attention to the fame that affected objects and people to a religious following. It is hard to make a bold intellectual connection by simply studying a Whorls acrylic painting. Only those that yet have a preconceived emotional bond to the subject of his paintings can feel anything from them.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Mods and Rockers Essay Example

Mods and Rockers Paper What Is A Moral Panic? What Does This Tell Us About Crime And Criminality? Support Your Discussion With At Least Four Identified Examples Of Moral Panics Experienced In The Past. This essay will commence by examining the origins of the term moral panic and will discuss definitions of the phrase. Following from this, examples of moral panics will be considered, to aid clarification of this subject. Having identified incidences of the phenomenon, four will be discussed in further detail. These will be the panics that surrounded Mods and Rockers, drug use, video nasties and paedophilia. The concepts within these occurrences will provide features such as how they occur, who labels them as such and the way in which a moral panic gains in momentum within society. During this essay, a discourse will question links between moral panic and affects on crime and criminality. It may be stated that it is almost impossible to read literature on the subject matter, without promptly coming across references to the author Stanley Cohen and his book written in 1972, named Folk Devils And Moral Panics. Cohen, a sociologist, coined the phrase moral panic within this tome, to describe the phenomenon that he witnessed of over dramatization by the media and politicians of deviant behaviour, causing a public reaction which was out of all proportion to the conduct of the deviants. It may be suggested that the concept has become a useful addition to the vocabulary of sociology and used by sociologists and criminologists to describe incidences of similar behaviour. Cohen discusses: Societies appear to be subject every now and then, to periods of moral panic. We will write a custom essay sample on Mods and Rockers specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Mods and Rockers specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Mods and Rockers specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests; its nature is presented in a stylised and stereotypical fashion by the mass media sometimes the object of the panic is quite novel and other times it is something which has been in existence long enough, but suddenly appears in the limelight. (Cohen, 1972. p. 9). The Penguin Dictionary Of Sociology defines the term Moral Panic in another explanatory manner, which it could be argued, provides a better understanding of the term, for those without background knowledge of the experience: Episodes of widespread anxiety and fear triggered by apparently trivial events. Moral panics have a long and varied history from accusations of witchcraft in the sixteenth century to fears about drug users or muggers in contemporary society. They usually involve the identification of a folk devil who is held to be responsible for whatever moral or social damage has occurred In contemporary societies, the mass media may play a very large role in moral panics, spreading rumour and contributing to a spiral of anxiety and fear. (Abercrombie, Hill and Turner. 2000. p. 231. ). Although this definition seemingly provides a further understanding of the term, it could be understood that the source is firmly entrenched within Cohens findings. Since Cohens study, it may be agreed that a great many folk devils and moral panics have been identified. It could be argued that major concern has been mounted regarding issues such as drugs, football hooliganism, asylum seekers, AIDS and homosexuality, paedophiles, pornography, teenage pregnancy, video nasties and youths, to name but a few. Cohens influential study commenced primarily with two youth groups of the 1960s, the Mods and Rockers. The Mods were neat, chic and cool. The Rocker was mean, moody and masculine (Teenage Kicks. n. d. ). Burns mentions in her study that on Easter bank holiday, 1964 in Clacton, Essex, the groups clashed. The conflict caused a number of beach huts to be damaged, windows broken and scuffles to break out resulting in ninety-seven arrests. During the following week, national newspapers grabbed attention of readers with headlines such as Day Of Terror By Scooter Groups and Wild Ones Invade Seaside 97 Arrests. Phrases such as orgy, riot siege and screaming mob were included. Thus, sensationalised by the press with exaggeration of facts and numbers, came a supposition by society that the event was a more violent incident than the facts supported (Burns, 2000). Burns states that Cohen criticised the media for the amplification of the situation, which caused Mods and Rockers to be seen as a threat to law and order. He named this theory control culture, an incident whereby the media purposely sensationalise an event and then call for punishment of the perpetrators, creating folk devils amongst society (Burns, 2000. ). Richard Ives (n. d. ) argues that on following bank holidays, public panic came to be out of all proportion to the size of the problem. Young people were turned away from the beaches; youths were reported to the police and punitive measures such as fines were put into place, which were disproportionate to offences committed. These reactions caused more arrests, more tension between the groups and further incidences throughout the country (Ives, n. d. ). It may be stated that this moral panic therefore had a direct impact upon crime and criminality, causing a self fulfilling prophecy. Ives mentions that eventually, the moral panic over Mods and Rockers died away. What stopped it? From the point of view of the public and mass media, it was largely a waning of interest. Mods and Rockers as folk devils were replaced by other new and newsworthy phenomenon. (Ives, n. d. ). Before looking more closely at three further incidences of moral panics, it could be considered important to look at the way in which moral panics can be broken down into five elements, which define it: concern, hostility, consensus, disproportionality and volatility (Goode and Ben-Yehuda 1994, p. 33-40).

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Individualism and Collectivism Essay Example

Individualism and Collectivism Essay Example Individualism and Collectivism Paper Individualism and Collectivism Paper The need to expand actively In the geographical areas beyond national borders puts the company and their managers In the difficult conditions of doing business In different countries. This gives rise to diverse and multifaceted problems caused by the existence of cultural differences between countries. Therefore, studies of effects of Job satisfaction and high quality job alternatives, in different cultural contexts, on desire of employees to exit, neglect, voice or to stay loyal, are very crucial components in todays cross-cultural business environment. Actually, there are two ways of cultural Influence on organizational life. Firstly, culture and behavior are inter- related, and Influence each other. Secondly, culture affects not only what people do, but also how they do it. Next paragraph will be explaining the difference in behavioral responses to low Job satisfaction and job alternatives in deferent cultural contexts, followed by the factors perfecting behavioral responses in horizontal individualism and vertical collectivism cultures. The last chapter will consist of summary of factors, recommendations for global managers how to enhance cross ultra work, and conclusion. Individualism and collectivism According to Hefted, there are six dimensions that differ countries among each other. They are: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism and indulgence. However, this proposal is mainly focusing on two of them, which are power distance and individualism, since they are closely connected. The term Individualism refers to the belief that every person Is unique and should care about him/herself, while collectivism is its antonym and stands for the belief hat people should act in interests of societies instead of achieving personal goals. Several research were conducted on relationship between power distance and individualism, and they have shown that there is negative relationship between them. Meaning that the higher Individualism the lower power distance, while higher power distance will lead to the collectivism within the country. People from Individualistic culture are more Like to quit and voice, when they suffer from low Job satisfaction. In contrast, people from collectivist society are more likely to neglect, nice they are not satisfied by their job, and stay loyal, because they put interests of a group on the first place. The article of Thomas and Au, has shown that employees decisions on whether to voice, exit, neglect or to be loyal are highly dependent on cultural differences. Furthermore, Job satisfaction and the quality of Job alternatives also have Impact on employees performance. Differences in individualistic and collectivist countries The quality of job alternatives encourage workers of both cultures to change position, however sometimes people from collectivist societies may decide to stay to show he level of loyalty to the company. Sometimes strong collectivism may enhance employees commitment to organization, which may result In low staff turnover, with co-workers. Such phenomenon of high loyalty and dedication can clearly be seen in Russia and former Soviet Union countries. Soviet Union was a country which can be characterized by a very high collectivism culture, where interests of society were on the first place. It should be mentioned that the dissolution of the country into fifteen independent countries has weakened the collectivism, however it is still high. According to Hefted 6-D model, the level of individualism in Russia is 39, while the power of distance is 93. Actually, this means that power in country is distributed unequally, and can be categorized as very centralized, since 2/3 of foreign investments go into the capital city, Moscow. Moreover, this happens not only in Russia, but also in other former Soviet Union countries, such as Astrakhan, Uzbekistan and Gyrations, where people very often suffering of low Job satisfaction, but they dont quit, because they are afraid to stay unemployed. However, it should e mentioned that employees might change their position when the quality of Job alternatives is high. According to the News, more that 7,7 million or 11% of workers have changed their positions for the last 5 years in Russia. In addition, it should be mentioned that most of them are people of younger generation, those who were born in ass and ass, during the restructuring and dissolution of the country, while older generation prefer to stay, even if they have high quality alternative. On the other hand, is individualistic cultures where the high value has been put on creativity, autonomy and self-benefit. As an example, we can take United States of America, where the political situation is stable for the past 50 years, the power distance and individualism are 40 and 91 respectively. Within American organizations, hierarchy is established for convenience, superiors are accessible and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. Both managers and employees expect to be consulted and information is shared frequently. At the same time, communication is informal, direct and participative to a degree. However, it should e mentioned that according to Bureau of Labor Statistics, that people change the Job on average 11 times from ages from 18 to 44. While older people very rare decide to change their Job. So it can be said that political factor and age can also affect the behavioral responses in different countries. Conclusion and recommendations Thomas and Au have identified several factors affecting the behavioral responses to low Job satisfaction and high quality alternatives, which are cultural differences such as individualistic and collectivist cultures, and examined different responses of Job alternatives in those cultures. Furthermore, at their article they have mentioned economic factor as one of the reasons when choosing to exit or stay. In this proposal, comparison of two countries with different cultures, Russia and USA, has identified two other possible factors: political stability and age, as factors affecting the behavioral responses to low Job satisfaction and high quality Job alternatives. To overcome cultural differences global managers should first of all understand that they have to adapt to the culture of the country, not try to adapt the country to the ultra of home country. Furthermore, understanding that all cultures are actually multicultural, can help managers to overcome challenges that the might face. Since, Moreover, men and women are the two largest groups of culture. Another recommendation, is that managers should understand the difference in view of conflicts between collectivist and individualistic cultures. Collectivists, are more likely not be involved in it, since they put more emphasize on stability and harmony, while individualists assume the conflict as inevitable part of life, which can be solved.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Daughter Cells and Chromosome Number in Mitosis and Meiosis

Daughter Cells and Chromosome Number in Mitosis and Meiosis Daughter cells are cells that result from the division of a single parent cell. They are produced by the division processes of mitosis and meiosis. Cell division is the reproductive mechanism whereby living organisms grow, develop, and produce offspring. At the completion of the mitotic cell cycle, a single cell divides forming two daughter cells. A parent cell undergoing meiosis produces four daughter cells. While mitosis occurs in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, meiosis occurs in eukaryotic animal cells, plant cells, and fungi. Daughter Cells in Mitosis Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle that involves the division of the cell nucleus and the separation of chromosomes. The division process is not complete until after cytokinesis, when the cytoplasm is divided and two distinct daughter cells are formed. Prior to mitosis, the cell prepares for division by replicating its DNA and increasing its mass and organelle numbers. Chromosome movement occurs in the different phases of mitosis: ProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophase During these phases, chromosomes are separated, moved to opposite poles of the cell, and contained within newly formed nuclei. At the end of the division process, duplicated chromosomes are divided equally between two cells. These daughter cells are genetically identical diploid cells that have the same chromosome number and chromosome type. Somatic cells are examples of cells that divide by mitosis. Somatic cells consist of all body cell types, excluding sex cells. The somatic cell chromosome number in humans is 46, while the chromosome number for sex cells is 23. Daughter Cells in Meiosis In organisms that are capable of sexual reproduction, daughter cells are produced by meiosis. Meiosis is a two part division process that produces gametes. The dividing cell goes through prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase twice. At the end of meiosis and cytokinesis, four haploid cells are produced from a single diploid cell. These haploid daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell and are not genetically identical to the parent cell. In sexual reproduction, haploid gametes unite in fertilization and become a diploid zygote. The zygote continues to divide by mitosis and develops into a fully functioning new individual. Daughter Cells and Chromosome Movement How do daughter cells end up with the appropriate number of chromosomes after cell division? The answer to this question involves the spindle apparatus. The spindle apparatus consists of microtubules and proteins that manipulate chromosomes during cell division. Spindle fibers attach to replicated chromosomes, moving and separating them when appropriate. The mitotic and meiotic spindles move chromosomes to opposite cell poles, ensuring that each daughter cell gets the correct number of chromosomes. The spindle also determines the location of the metaphase plate. This centrally localized site becomes the plane on which the cell eventually divides. Daughter Cells and Cytokinesis The final step in the process of cell division occurs in cytokinesis. This process begins during anaphase and ends after telophase in mitosis. In cytokinesis, the dividing cell is split into two daughter cells with the help of the spindle apparatus. Animal Cells In animal cells, the spindle apparatus determines the location of an important structure in the cell division process called the contractile ring. The contractile ring is formed from actin microtubule filaments and proteins, including the motor protein myosin. Myosin contracts the ring of actin filaments forming a deep groove called a cleavage furrow. As the contractile ring continues to contract, it divides the cytoplasm and pinches the cell in two along the cleavage furrow. Plant Cells Plant cells do not contain asters, star-shaped spindle apparatus microtubules, which help determine the site of the cleavage furrow in animal cells. In fact, no cleavage furrow is formed in plant cell cytokinesis. Instead, daughter cells are separated by a cell plate formed by vesicles that are released from Golgi apparatus organelles. The cell plate expands laterally and fuses with the plant cell wall forming a partition between the newly divided daughter cells. As the cell plate matures, it eventually develops into a cell wall. Daughter Chromosomes The chromosomes within daughter cells are termed daughter chromosomes. Daughter chromosomes result from the separation of sister chromatids occuring in anaphase of mitosis and anaphase II of meiosis. Daughter chromosomes develop from the replication of single-stranded chromosomes during the synthesis phase (S phase) of the cell cycle. Following DNA replication, the single-stranded chromosomes become double-stranded chromosomes held together at a region called the centromere. Double-stranded chromosomes are known as sister chromatids. Sister chromatids are eventually separated during the division process and equally distributed among newly formed daughter cells. Each separated chromatid is known as a daughter chromosome. Daughter Cells and Cancer Mitotic cell division is strictly regulated by cells to ensure that any errors are corrected and that cells divide properly with the correct number of chromosomes. Should mistakes occur in cell error checking systems, the resulting daughter cells may divide unevenly. While normal cells produce two daughter cells by mitotic division, cancer cells are distinguished for their ability to produce more than two daughter cells. Three or more daughter cells may develop from dividing cancer cells and these cells are produced at a faster rate than normal cells. Due to the irregular division of cancer cells, daughter cells may also end up with too many or not enough chromosomes. Cancer cells often develop as a result of mutations in genes that control normal cell growth or that function to suppress cancer cell formation. These cells grow uncontrollably, exhausting the nutrients in the surrounding area. Some cancer cells even travel to other locations in the body via the circulatory system or lymphatic system.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Think Detroit Police Athletic League (PAL) Research Paper

Think Detroit Police Athletic League (PAL) - Research Paper Example Think Detroit PAL, a private non-profit organization that has been positively touching the lives of thousand youths through sports and leadership development programs. The organization mission’s is to develop character in youths through athletics and leadership development programs and academics. The program has been developing mentors and training volunteer coaches. Presently, Think Detroit offers fall and spring soccer to youths, however following increased prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension due to inactivity; Think Detroit wishes to expand is program to become an all year soccer competition. To implement the year round soccer program for youths in the inner city, Think Detroit requires to raise 18621 dollars. These funds will be used to purchase player’s uniforms, balls and ball bags. Moreover the money will be used in rewarding teams and organizing celebrations. The organization will use some of volunteer coaching staff to aid in administration of the club affairs and parents will have to pay 40 dollars for their parents to participate. The organization has adequate and well experienced professionals to initiate such a program. The program will target youths leaving in Wayne County and those in the inner city. However, those in Detroit will be given priority. There will be five coed teams and the program will run from November 2012 to August 2013 with two seasons; summer and winter tournaments. Children in the program will have to show their report cards to the coaching staff as an indicator of any improvement. The contact point with the organization is Dana Cooper who is the soccer commissioner. Organizational Information Our organization; Think Detroit Police Athletic League (PAL) is a non-profit organization that has been positively touching lives of about ten thousand children annually by use of athletics and leadership mentorship programs. The organization was formed following a merger of Think Detroit and Detroit PAL in 2006. The organization empowers the society by educating volunteer coaches and developing safe areas that our kids can play. Annually, Think

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Managerial Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4

Managerial Accounting - Essay Example From these, the variable cost per unit is obtainable. The graph shows that the distribution of machine hours whose correlation with total costs incurred yields the least of effects on the total costs comparing all the variables involved. The correlation between machine hours and total cost is 0.2 whose relationship is less positive (Duchac, Reeve and Warren 754). Considering the relationship between total costs of production and the direct labor hours, the relationship is more positive. Interpreting this shows that there is a highly positive relationship between the two variables. The correlation coefficient here stands at 0.72, which is the highest. It reveals that a change in the number of direct labor hours will have great effect on the total costs of the manufacturing process. Duchac, Reeve and Warren (754) suggest that due to this, reduction of labor hours will yield a reduction in total cost of production that may yield higher profits. The third variable looks at the relationship between the total numbers of units produced in relation to the total costs incurred. The relationship is positive and correlation gives a 0.67 result. It shows that the total cost increase would yield an increase in the level of units produced. According to Duchac, Reeve and Warren (754), the relationship here shows the least positive of correlation. The relationship relates with the relevant range widely based on the period taken. Relative range represents the range within which a given price or cost holds true. The least square method is advantageous in that it includes all the data observed and tries to identify the line of best fit. The line helps to determine the variable and fixed cost proportion. The disadvantage of this method lies in its complication of the process because it considers all the observations presented. Under regression analysis, the following formula is vital. This aims at

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Cheating Is Wrong Essay Example for Free

Cheating Is Wrong Essay Why is it cheating? It is cheating because: * When you are given an assignment to write a paper for a class, you are being asked to write the paper. If the professor wanted to know what someone else thinks about the topic, she’d ask that other person, not you! * One purpose of assignments and exams in school is to honestly evaluate your knowledge and abilities. If you didn’t honestly demonstrate your knowledge and abilities, then the professor can’t honestly assess them. If the professor can’t honestly assess them, then the university or college is giving you an invalid credential. Once you have an invalid credential, you undermine the integrity of your alma matter (whose reputation upon which you depend for your livelihood) and you are falsely representing yourself, your knowledge and your abilities to prospective employers, graduate and professional schools. * You are lying when you turn in the paper with your name on it as if you were the only author. This makes you a liar, and a cheat. This is no different than if you had someone else take your driver’s test for you or did your job for you while you got paid. Why is cheating wrong? If you need to ask this, you’ve got bigger problems than I can solve. Cheating is wrong because it creates a distrustful community and world – once we can’t trust each other, your doctor, your accountant, your grocery store clerk, and so on, we will have to move into a complete police state. Constant monitoring. No privacy. No freedom. You are entrusted to do your assignments honestly and with integrity, this means always acknowledging the help you receive from others. With trust comes great responsibility. You are responsible for your own integrity. You are responsible for NOT being a cheater.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Human Resource Management Assignment :: essays research papers

The organization I am most familiar with is that of which I am currently employed, Farmhouse Studios is a small company consisting of seven people: The Director/Owner, two managers of equal rank, two designers, a sound engineer, a technician and a secretary. My position is that of one of the managers, my job is to generate new business and oversee day to day production. Farmhouse studios is in the compact disk duplication market, we provide a turnkey service in which company profiles may be set up on CD-Rom for promotional purposes, we also provide audio CD’s along with use of our fully equipped state of the art music studio. The two areas I felt would be applied best to this organization are training and development, and motivation. Before discussing either of the two one must first really understand what training and development really consist of. This assignment entails of me to compare what I have learnt in this module with my practice at work, however by doing so certain aspects must be simplified due to the size of the company. Large organizations would constantly analyze performance and would probably have a training department. In our company’s case training usually follows an introduction of new hardware or software. Technology is one of the most important factors at Farmhouse Studios, being an I.T based company, new technology is always being introduced. Just before the beginning of 2005 new printers were brought in and our technician was sent overseas to attend a course. Our designers attend courses regularly so as to keep informed regarding the constantly progressing world of I.T and gr aphic design. Training results in better utilization of high tech equipment, the efficiency of staff increases dramatically. Once a workforce is professionally educated regarding the field they deal with everyday the response is very positive, one may see a change in performance almost immediately. When discussing training and development we must keep in mind that this process is vital yet it is usually very costly in many different ways. Firstly there is the actual cost of training an individual; there is the time it takes for an individual to be trained. Assessing whether training is needed requires analysis. Companies must look at training as an investment, investments are carried out with ample thought and so should training a workforce. Productivity, quality control, cost and customer satisfaction are all areas in which problems arise within a company, this is when it is crucial to identify the problem to see if it was a result of insufficient training.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Critique of Alexander Pope by Carole Fabricante Essay

â€Å"Defining Self and Others: Pope and Eighteenth Century Gender Ideology† – Carole Fabricante. This is an in depth critique by Carole Fabricante of eighteenth century gender ideologies in which Fabricante uses the poet Alexander Pope’s poetry as an example of changing thoughts towards gender roles. In particular, or as a specific argument, Fabricante warns about the use of ‘active voices’ to relate the situations, circumstances and feelings of the ‘passive’. Herein she discusses the dangers of allowing others who attempt to empathise with the voiceless, to become the main petition for the said people. The eighteenth century being a time in which women were largely relegated to the ‘seen and not heard’ caste, Fabricante examines Pope’s position not only as a protagonist for the ‘unspoken’, but also as devils advocate. She describes Pope’s own history as a crippled and deformed individual whose own identity is compromised by his inability to conform to the socialized standards of masculinity. This would naturally grant Pope a greater ability to empathize with the underdog. â€Å"Deformed, dwarfish, sickly, and probably impotent as a result of having contracted spinal tuberculosis in infancy, Pope was someone whose â€Å"manhood† was continually being called into question both by his enemies in print and by the women in his life, not to mention by his own ironic perceptions of himself. † (Fabricante). As a result of his own deformity, Fabricante asserts that his own idea of patriarchal power hierarchy and that this may at some level give him a greater lease to speak for those who ‘cannot’. Pope is by no means a passive voice, although speaking as a women in poems such as â€Å"Eloisa to Abelard† and â€Å"Epistle to Miss Blount†, Fabricante does question whether Pope uses a form of political satire to direct is ideas. However Fabricante does admit the following: â€Å"Pope’s ambiguous and contradictory position in society affords us the opportunity to explore the dialectical interaction between the voices of marginality and dominance as these vye, not only among different groups in society, but also within a single personality and consciousness. †(Fabricante). The paper as a whole questions the usage over time of writers, artists and activists in order to speak for others, believing that this is not a clear or authentic view of those individuals. She compares Pope’s representation of women to that of Swift, another eighteenth century poet. In this comparison she examines the subtlety with which Pope describes women as a victim of choice-less marriages and breeding stock as opposed to Swifts considerably less authentic identification. She also explores the use of objectification of women as an entity for which the primary necessity it fulfils, are men. As an exploratory paper, Fabricante does touch on a great deal of the effects of subjugation of women as the ‘other’ over time. This is particularly important in an era such as the eighteenth century where the socialized acceptance by women of their fate, was beginning to disintegrate. Following the Renaissance, reading the likes of Shakespeares Othello and Romeo and Juliet, the discomfort faced by women was already rearing its head. However, it took centuries for this transformation to come into fruition. I feel that at times Fabricante attacks the wrong people though. In the beginning her main focus is on the Foucauldian perception of the voiceless being incarcerated by those intent on speaking for them. In many ways this practice does rob the recipient even further of their own right to be heard, however, those who can identify say for instance with abortion, may not be able to speak for themselves. This leads in the end, to no one getting anywhere. The point, I believe of people speaking for others, is not to precipitate further oppression, but to give them the strength to speak for themselves. Foucault, as Fabricante uses for an example, was himself a minority, being outwardly gay and questioning the idea of transgression as perceived by society, makes a good representation of those previously voiceless speaking out. As a sociological argument, Fabricante is eloquent and aggressive and may strike the reader as being decidedly feminist, although this may be a misconception on the part of the reader. Fabricante makes many interesting and pertinent points although she is not easy to read. For this reason it necessary to remember that the paper is not a poetic analysis, but a personality one. In the greater scheme of social theory, Fabricante displays all the downfalls and assets of social study particularly that of the need to label people as ‘other’. Describing another group or individual as ‘other’ is a social truth, as all things that can be defined, must by all intents and purposes possess an opposite. I believe Fabricante’s dissertation to be insightful, if at times a little aggressive. The paper sometimes appeared a little confused, perhaps because she uses a number of external which are placed within her own ideas.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Kara Walker: Artist

Considered one of the respectable and influential contemporary fine artists in United States in this generation, Kara Walker revives historical events.   Her intelligent artworks, which are mostly monochromatic, silhouette in style, suggest tragic sceneries believably happen during antebellum period in the South where sectionalism, racial discrimination, sexism and gender inequality occurred.The Life and Biography of Kara WalkerKara Walker was born on November 26, 1969 in Stockton, California.   She was a member of a black family.   Although she admitted that it was her family who convinced her to show and enhance her own artistic intelligence and talent, she remembers that at a very young age of 2 ½ or 3 years old, she already has the conviction to follow the footsteps of his educated artist father Larry Walker, as she was watching him drawing while sitting on his lap.   Kara Walker received her Bachelor of Fine Arts majoring in Painting and Printmaking at Atlanta College of Art in 1991 and her Masters in Fine Arts at Rhode Island School of Design which she also majors in Painting and Printmaking in 1994.   Currently, she is a member of the faculty in Columbia University where she works as a professor of an MFA program and teaches visual arts.Aside from her numerous art exhibitions, Kara Walker received recognitions as part of her achievements which includes her genius award of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in 1997 wherein the record shows that she is the youngest recipient of the said genius grant at the age of 27; her representation in Sao Paolo Biennial in Brazil in 2002; and this year’s inclusion of her name as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World – Entertainment and Artists in Times Magazine.Works and MasterpiecesUnlike other artists who commonly express their feelings, or wander and explore the beauty of life, or transcends the limitation of artistry to go beyond the thin line of natural charac terization and fictional imagery, Kara Walker chose to make focus on the heartbreaking and controversial historical folklore of African American people during pre-American Civil War as her only subject matter, which anyone could speculate her work that has unconsciously come in series.   She is famous for her signature medium, and that is using caricatures or cut-paper silhouette life-sized images adhesively displayed and installed mostly on an entire white-painted wall creating a panoramic nostalgia of her topic.Kara Walker put on view to the public her first ever large masterpiece of a 50 feet long and 13 feet high mural which she called Gone, An Historical Romance of a Civil War as It Occurred Between the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart, in 1994.   After the first hit, she then experimented to have a narrative vignette and a cyclorama.   Her first cyclorama in 1997 entitled Slavery! Slavery! was a 12 feet high and 85 feet long in a 360-degree installation. Also you can read Rhetorical Devices in Night Walker by Brent StaplesEnhancement of her medium is technically improved as she explores different techniques and procedures in her artworks to make them more artistic, attractive, and more pleasurable to the eyes of her audience.   This includes the use of light projections.   The Darkytown Rebellion in 2001, which is a 14 feet high and 37 feet long mural using life-sized black paper cut-outs and overhead light projectors of different colors, demonstrates the involvement of the viewers in the mural as their shadows cast with the characters glued in the wall.   In her latest experimentation, she challenges herself to animate her silhouette black paper cut-out images and make them move with the help of 16mm film, plywood trees, dimensions variable and sounds.   Her success in this stroke is another breakthrough, and the animation project is exhibited in 2004, which she gave the title Testimony: Narrative of a Negress Burdened by Go od Intentions.Although Kara Walker is well-known for having her own style of using silhouette cut-outs, she is also fond of drawing and painting, as this is what she mastered in the University.   One of her colorful painting is entitled Allegory.   This painting is finished in 1996, using the gouache and watercolor on 5.3 feet high and 4.3 feet wide paper.Kara Walker has also a series of drawings with a story behind it.   The one is called Do You Like Creme in Your Coffee and Chocolate in Your Milk?, a 64 pages of paper using watercolor, colored pencil, and graphite.   This is a series of dramatic narration and representation about the emotions and struggles of an artist like her from public views, opinions, and critiques.Another artwork that she created is the large-scale wall text.   The most famous one in 1998 is called Letter from a Black Girl, a collage of typewritten text in 30 index cards, artistically set up as a life-sized mural.ThemesWhile Kara Walker is fascinat ed using the unconventional medium which transcends in different level of artwork, she inculcates the same subject matter of American Pre-Civil War Antebellum South.   Having combining the topics of slavery, violence and sex, drawn from cultural influences that include folklore, cartoons, movies, black memorabilia, Harlequin romance novels and slave narratives, she then come up all those themes in five major categories.   These are racial representation; desire, pleasure and shame; historical agreement between fact, fantasy and fiction; descriptive storytelling or narrative; and humor.R E F E R E N C E SKara Walker: My Complement, My Enemy, My Oppressor, My Love. 2005. The Art ofKara Walker: A Companion to the Exhibit. 13 Sept. 2007.Kara Walker: The Collection. The Broad Art Froundation. 23 Sept. 2007.Kara Walker. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 23 Sept. 2007. Sterling, Kristin. Visual Arts' Kara Walker Recreates Scenes from Antebellum SouthThrough Life Sized Silhouettes. 2003 . Columbia News: The Public Affairs andRecord Home Page. 23 Sept. 2007.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Free Essays on Death Row

â€Å"At 8:00 p.m. it was nearing the end of John Evans’ last day on death row. He had spent most of the day with his minister and family, praying and talking of what was to come. At 8:20 he was walked from his cell down to the long hall to the execution room and strapped in the electric chair. At 8:30 p.m. the first jolt of 1900 volts passed through Mr. Evans’ body. It lasted 30 seconds. Sparks and flames erupted from the electrode tied to Mr. Evans’ leg. His body slammed against the straps holding him in the chair and his fist clenched permanently. The electrode then burst from the strap holding it in place. A large puff of gray smoke and sparks pored out from under the hood that covered his face. An overpowering stench of burnt flesh and clothing began pervading the witness room. Two doctors then examined Mr. Evans and declared that he was not dead. The electrode was then refastened and Mr. Evans was given another 30-second jolt. The stench was nauseating. Again the doctors examined him and found his heart still beating. At this time the prison commissioner, who was talking on the line with Governor George Wallace of Alabama, was asked to cancel the execution on the grounds that Mr. Evans was being subject to cruel and unusual punishment. The request was denied. At 8:40 p.m. the third charge of electricity was passed through Mr. Evans body. At 8:44 p.m. he was pronounced dead. The execution took 14 minutes. Afterward officials were embarrassed by what one observer called the â€Å"barbaric ritual.† The electric chair is supposed to be a very humane way of administering death, if there is one† (Zimring, & Hawkins, 1986, p.1). Every Western Industrial nation has stopped executing criminals, except the United States. Most Western nations have executed criminals in this century, and many were executed after World War II. Then executions suddenly decreased (Clay, 1990, p.9). This is partly because the people in many European cou... Free Essays on Death Row Free Essays on Death Row â€Å"At 8:00 p.m. it was nearing the end of John Evans’ last day on death row. He had spent most of the day with his minister and family, praying and talking of what was to come. At 8:20 he was walked from his cell down to the long hall to the execution room and strapped in the electric chair. At 8:30 p.m. the first jolt of 1900 volts passed through Mr. Evans’ body. It lasted 30 seconds. Sparks and flames erupted from the electrode tied to Mr. Evans’ leg. His body slammed against the straps holding him in the chair and his fist clenched permanently. The electrode then burst from the strap holding it in place. A large puff of gray smoke and sparks pored out from under the hood that covered his face. An overpowering stench of burnt flesh and clothing began pervading the witness room. Two doctors then examined Mr. Evans and declared that he was not dead. The electrode was then refastened and Mr. Evans was given another 30-second jolt. The stench was nauseating. Again the doctors examined him and found his heart still beating. At this time the prison commissioner, who was talking on the line with Governor George Wallace of Alabama, was asked to cancel the execution on the grounds that Mr. Evans was being subject to cruel and unusual punishment. The request was denied. At 8:40 p.m. the third charge of electricity was passed through Mr. Evans body. At 8:44 p.m. he was pronounced dead. The execution took 14 minutes. Afterward officials were embarrassed by what one observer called the â€Å"barbaric ritual.† The electric chair is supposed to be a very humane way of administering death, if there is one† (Zimring, & Hawkins, 1986, p.1). Every Western Industrial nation has stopped executing criminals, except the United States. Most Western nations have executed criminals in this century, and many were executed after World War II. Then executions suddenly decreased (Clay, 1990, p.9). This is partly because the people in many European cou...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Hygrometer a Weather Instrument that Measure Humidity

Hygrometer a Weather Instrument that Measure Humidity A hygrometer is a weather instrument used to measure the amount of humidity in the atmosphere. There are two main types of hygrometers a dry and wet bulb psychrometer and a mechanical hygrometer. What is Humidity? Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere caused by condensation and evaporation. It can be measured as absolute humidity (the amount of water vapor in a unit volume of air), or a relative humidity (the ratio of moisture in the atmosphere to the maximum moisture the atmosphere can hold). It is what gives you that uncomfortable sticky feeling on a hot day and can cause heat stroke. We feel most comfortable with relative humidity between 30% and 60%. How do Hygrometers Work? Wet and dry bulb psychrometers are the most simple and common way of measuring humidity. This type of hygrometer uses two basic mercury thermometers, one with a wet bulb one with a dry bulb. Evaporation from the water on the wet bulb causes its temperature reading to drop, causing it to show a lower temperature than the dry bulb. Relative humidity is calculated by comparing the readings using a calculation table that compares the ambient temperature (the temperature given by the dry bulb) to the difference in temperatures between the two thermometers. A mechanical hygrometer uses a slightly more complex system, based on one of the first hygrometers designed in 1783 by Horace Bà ©nà ©dict de Saussure. This system uses an organic material (usually human hair) that expands and contracts as a result of the surrounding humidity (that also explains why you always seem to have a bad hair day when it’s hot and humid!). The organic material is held under slight tension by a spring, which is linked to a needle gauge that indicates the level of humidity based on how the hair has moved. How Does Humidity Affect Us? Humidity is important for our comfort and our health. Humidity has been linked to sleepiness, lethargy, lack of observations, lower observation skills, and irritability. Humidity also plays a factor in heat stroke and heat exhaustion. As well as affecting people, too much or too little humidity can affect your possessions. Too little humidity can dry out and damage furniture. In contrast, too much humidity can cause moisture stains, condensation, swelling, and mold. Getting the Best Results from a Hygrometer Hygrometers must be calibrated at least once a year to ensure they provide the most accurate results possible. Even the best, most expensive hygrometer’s accuracy is likely to alter over time. To calibrate, place your hygrometer in a sealed container alongside a cup of salt water, and place it in a room where the temperature stays relatively constant throughout the day (e.g. not by a fireplace or front door), then leave it to sit for 10 hours. At the end of the 10 hours, the hygrometer should display a relative humidity level of 75% (the standard) if not, you need to adjust the display.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 79

Summary - Essay Example Rituals are well established form of cultural practices or ceremonies that mark a certain social rite in the society. Although modernity or globalization has contributed to some changes in the African societies, many African societies are still attached to cultural practices, traditions and customary issues. Cultural, traditional and ritual practices are widespread in African societies. The Ndebele people are well known for being artistic people because of artistic creativity and decorations of their homestead. Their historical perspective focuses on the ritualistic practices especially male and female initiation and marriage as well as religious practices or beliefs (Sian Tiley-Nel par.1). The Ndebele people are famous because of creativity in art, traditional practices and religious beliefs. They practice male and female initiation ceremonies known as ingoma or wela and iqhude or ukuthombisa respectively. Marriage ceremony is significant to them, and their ancestors, influences their daily practices. The African coming-of –age rituals are viewed as consisting of three main stages, which includes separation from the society, transcription period and reincorporation into community (Hipple par.3). The first phase involves taking boys and girls into the forest, which is notable for ritual activities. The second phase of transition involves initiating learning activities and training boys and girls on significant skills that will help them to participate in the society. For instance, the Krobo of Ghana trains girls for three weeks on various issues such as ways of dancing and art of seduction, female behaviors in the society and the domestic core skills. However, the initial process for girls in the Senufo of Ivory Coast takes a period of seven or eight years. The third phase reincorporation into society, which is the last phase for African coming of age rituals. This stage involves varied ordeals and tests that are usually painful. The

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Health promotion lnterveton Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Health promotion lnterveton - Essay Example This intervention seeks to create awareness of the potential health risks posed by binge drinking, as well as the potential benefits of non-indulgence in binge drinking. The health promotion intervention took place at the London Metropolitan University through a PowerPoint presentation. Prior to the intervention, a selection of ten participants willing to participate in the health promotion intervention took place. A pre-assessment of the perceptions of the participants in binge drinking occurred before the intervention. After the intervention, each participant filled in a post-assessment questionnaire. Analysis and comparison of these assessments determined the outcome of the intervention. In the recent past, studies have revealed that there is an increased rate of binge drinking among undergraduate students. A close analysis of students’ perception on alcohol use highlights that they consider it a pleasurable activity. Binge drinking among university students has been soaring at alarming rates. A remarkable percentage of students specifically 92.4% fall into the category of binge drinkers. These statistics reveal that university students have adopted the British drinking culture. Despite previous efforts by the government to reduce binge drinking, it seems to be increasing in universities. Notably, as the number of university students increased, binge drinkers among the students increase. In 2002, over 60% of undergraduates indulged in binge drinking. In one of the Scottish Universities, a study conducted to establish the percentage of binge drinkers that involved 180 female students revealed that most of them indulged in binge drinking. However, such students did not categorize themselves as binge drinkers (Marks, & Maguire 2010, p. 654). The increasing rates of binge drinking among university students are the cause for concern considering the negative health effects associated

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Outline Proposal Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Outline - Research Proposal Example Gender conflicts have become one of the major consequences for several leading retail chain organizations within the industry. It is true that these multinational leading retail chain organizations have developed workplace diversity in the business operation process in order to ensure effective knowledge sharing within the workplaces. However, several organizations are trying to maintain gender equality in the workplaces in different global places in order to maintain strong relationship with the valuable internal and external stakeholders (Daft, 2010, p.21). Application of â€Å"Stakeholder Theory† sustainability theory can be implemented in the study with respect to the selected topic issues i.e. workplace gender conflicts in leading retail chain organizations. Gender conflicts can be considered as one of the serious CSR or SD issues that can hamper the social sustainability of an organization (Eifler and Seifert, 2009, p.269). It is true that the external stakeholders gener ally take interest in the business operation process and business performance of an organization if that organization successfully meets the developed corporate values, business ethics and social or communal demand (Sims, 2003, p.104). This research will majorly focus on the application of this theory to analyze the particular issues. Valuable related thoughts and views of different authors have been considered in this part of the research to meet the developed research objective. There are two types of research methods, such as qualitative and quantitative research methodology. Quantitative research methodology generally deals with the numerical data on the other hand qualitative research methodology generally deals with inner feelings, behaviour and response of the respondents towards asked questions based on the research objective (Kothari, 2004, p.21). Qualitative research methodology has been selected based on the exploratory nature of the study (Kuada, 2012, p.57). In

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Gene chlR in Streptomyces Venezuelae

Gene chlR in Streptomyces Venezuelae PCR amplification and overexpression of the positive regulatory gene chlR in Streptomyces venezuelae J. L. CLAYTON BROWN Introduction The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in the amplification of DNA which utilises thermal stable polymerase, Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and primers which aid in the annealing of the chosen DNA strand, producing numerous replications through a cycle of appropriate temperature changes (Lorenz, 2012).   Developed in 1983 by Dr. Kary Banks Mullis, PCRs ability to quantitate transcription levels of specific genes has revolutionised research and the understanding of gene function (Bustin, 2000) in its many applications, including the ability to: detect DNA polymorphs and point mutations (Orita et al., 1989), amplify specific genes for the construction of overexpression vectors (Liang et al., 2015), and recognising bacterial (Hill, 1996) and viral (Holodniy, 1994) pathogens. Advances within PCR have only broadened the spectrum of its implementations, with new techniques such as Quantative PCR, and Inverse PCR yielding new insights into once misunderstood areas of molecular b iology (Jain and Varadarajan, 2013). ChlR is a cluster-associated transcriptional activator consisting of 987 base pairs within the putative CHL biosynthetic operon, predicated to encode the only positive regulator responsible for the initiation of production of chloramphenicol (CHL) (Fernà ¡ndez-Martà ­nez, et al., 2014); with the usance of PCRs cloning capacity, it is predicted that the introduction of a plasmid capable of overexpression of the chlR gene will result in amplified activity of the CHL biosynthetic gene cluster. Method DNA amplification by means of PCR often requires a high fidelity taq polymerase within the PCR mixture to minimise mutations (McInerney et al., 2014). The chlR DNA fragment was inserted into the vector pIJ10257 [1] prior to PCR. The final reaction mixture consisted of the following: 10ÃŽ ¼l 5X Colorless GoTaq ® Reaction Buffer, 2ÃŽ ¼l PCR Nucleotide Mix (10mM each dNTP), 5ÃŽ ¼l Apra_BamHI_F primer, 5ÃŽ ¼l Apra_BamHI_R primer, 2ÃŽ ¼l purified chlR chromosomal DNA, 5ÃŽ ¼l Dimethyl sulfoxide (D MSO), 20ÃŽ ¼l Nuclease-Free water, and 1ÃŽ ¼l GoTaq ® G2 DNA Polymerase, equating to a total reaction volume of 50ÃŽ ¼l within a sterile, nuclease-free PCR tube, labelled as group 2. The appropriate annealing temperature was set accordingly with the melting temperature (Tm) of the hybridising portion of the primer. The extension temperature was calculated upon the approximation of 1 minute per every 1kb of required amplified DNA. The resulting thermal cycle was applied as such: an initial cycle at 95 °C for 5 min (denaturation), 95 °C for 30 secs (secondary denaturation), 56 °C for 30 secs (annealing), 72 °C for 90 secs (extension), repeated for 30 cycles from secondary denaturation. The final extension temperature was 72 °C for a period of 5 mins (holding temperature 10 °C). Gel electrophoresis (GE) was preformed using a 0.8% polysaccharide agarose gel within a Tris/Borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer and inserted into the 2nd column. Results Gels were removed from the gel box and inspected underneath a UV light. No band of DNA was visible within column 2; the molecular weight ladder and chromosomal DNA within columns 3, 13, and 16 from other accompanying PCR (run simultaneously under the same conditions previously described) were observable. When compared to the molecular ladder, successful DNA fragments indicated a base pair (bp) length of approximately 1000bp, in correlation with the 987bp of the chlR regulatory sequence, an indication that the inserted DNA is present. Fig.1   0.08% agarose gel exhibiting the DNA ladder and S. veneuzlae chromosomal DNA within column 3, 13, and 16. Column 3 shows an excessive quanity of DNA, an indication overproportionate amount of template DNA were added during procedure. The absence of DNA within column 2 (indiciated in red) evinces the failed PCR described in this paper. Discussion   Ã‚   The absence of DNA within column 2 demonstrated the failure to obtain a PCR product. As each component was correctly incorporated, other aspects must be adjusted to result in an adequate amount of DNA cloning. There are several alterations implementable to increase the likelihood of success within the reaction, firstly being the redesign of appropriate primers as the most crucial component for successful amplification of the reaction (Dieffenbach et al., 1993); analysis based software for enhancing the specificity of the primers without compromising their sensitivity can be implemented, with programs such as Primer3 and QuantPrime offering the possibilities of designing internal oligonucleotides alongside primer pairs, and the optimisation of these primer pair designs enabling specificity evaluation, respectively (Noguera et al., 2014). If the primers present correctly, changes to the temperature cycle should next be ensured. A decrease in the annealing temperature has previously shown to reduce the risk of unspecific binding and preferential amplification (Sipos et al., 2007). A final modification to the protocol is to adjust the number of PCR cycles, as this change can influence aspects of the reaction; a low PCR cycle number may provide accurate estimation of bacterial richness and a decrease of PCR errors (Ahn et al., 2012), whilst an increase in cycles can improve fluorescent intensity of some dyes (SYBR ® Green I) (Ramakers et al., 2003). Electroporation is a common method of transformation concerning plasmids, involving a brief high-voltage pulse which renders the membrane pores to transiently open and allow the subsequent uptake of DNA into the host cell (Pigac and Schrempf, 1995); an associated example is an electrotransformed Escherichia coli bacteriumwith a cloned, overexpressed chlR gene. In order to clarify correct insertion and amplification of the correct sequence, the DNA must be sequenced. The most common method of DNA sequencing for cloned PCR products is the Sanger sequence, which technique lies in the use of chain-terminating nucleotides (Sanger, et al., 1977). Once clarified, the replicative vector can then be transferred to S. venezuelae via coagulation from the E. coli, transferrable due to the origin of transfer (oriT) within the vector (Mazodier et al., 1989). It Is expected that an overexpression of the chlR gene would result in elevated levels of the encoded transcription factor protein, initiating increased transcription of the CHL biosynthetic cluster and producing a higher chloramphenicol yield; this would be observable through analysation via High Performance Liquid Chromatography, a sensitive method appropriate for gene expression analysis (Sivakumaran, et al., 2003).Recent research [2] has strongly indicated that the constitutive expression of chlR effects the overall expression of the speculated, proceeding genes within the cluster, confirming chlRs role as a transcriptional activator (Fernà ¡ndez-Martà ­nez et al., 2014).

Friday, October 25, 2019

Applications and Reflections in Gestalt Play Therapy: A Case Study Ess

Gestalt therapy is a type of therapy used to deepen our awareness of ourselves. According to O’Connor and Braverman, (2009) â€Å"Gestalt" implies wholeness. â€Å"Gestalt therapy is a process-oriented, experiential therapy that is concerned with the integrated functioning of all aspects of the person: senses, body, emotions and intellect.† Gestalt therapy can be described as process active, experiential work and can help shed light on suppressed feelings by helping us focus our awareness on feelings in the present. In working through negative the client can realize negative behavior patterns that may have become ingrained. Understanding the relationship between what we tell ourselves (bad gestalts) and negative thought processes and can become a part of the healing process. Through this form of therapeutic process, individuals can become better equipped to understand themselves and make better or healthier choices, creating a unity of mind, body and spirit. When Gestalt theory is applied to taking of responsibility for problematic life experiences, the experiential work lies in assisting the client in taking ownership, self-examination, then making choices and resolving difficulties. When theory is applied to a play therapy relationship, the therapist enters into a partnership with the child, in a process where goals focus on empowerment of the child. This process is described in Oaklander, (2011). â€Å"Anger is the most misunderstood of all the human emotions. We tend to think of anger as basically distasteful and abhorrent -- something that we would rather not experience.† Oaklander posits that anger is a direct and unique expression of self, and the basic attempt to defend an inner personal boundary. ... ....47-Other dysfunctions of sleep stages or arousal f from sleep. Retrieved from http://www.icd9data.com/2011/Volume1/290-3 19/300-316/307/307.47.htm Kalff, Dora. (2003) Sandplay: A Psychotherapeutic Approach to the Psyche. Temenos Press, Cloverdale, CA. Lowenfeld, M. (1991) Play in Childhood. MacKeith Press, London. Miller, A. (1975) Albert Einstein and Max Wertheimer: a Gestalt psychologist's view of the genesis of special relativity theory. History of science; an Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching 13 (2): 75–103. Oaklander, V. (1988) Windows to Our Children: A Gestalt Therapy Approach to Children and Adolescents. The Gestalt Journal Press; Gouldsboro, Maine. Oaklander, V. (2011) The many faces of Anger. The Violet Oaklander Foundation, Retrieved from the internet 11/2/2011, from http://www.vsof.org/links.html

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Gender Roles in Latin America Essay

With only 10 percent of people claiming themselves to be natives, Latin America is considered as one of the most diverse regions in the world. Due to this ethnic and racial diversity, tracing the roots of gender issues by associating with a single group or factor might not reveal the truth. However, some objective factors like lower pay scales for women and labour force participation provide considerable objectivity to reckon the area in terms of gender issues (De Ferranti 77&78). Chile represents a variant region of Latin America which has gone through multiple phases in terms of gender roles and position. The period of coup d’etat against President Salvador Allende in the country is also considered as a time of human rights era (Cleary 1). In this context, women faced dual exploitation – first as Chilean natives and then as suppressed part of the society. The military take over resulted in some of the most gruesome tortures against women thereby becoming a primary reason of insurrection in the later period. However, this insurrection was partly related to the exiles of thousands of women from Chile who during the time of exile actively participated in bringing a paradigm shift. Rapid Industrialization and economic development in 1940s at one hand opened vistas for Latin American women by proving job opportunities, but the same phenomenon also served to debilitate their status and power. According to Julio Ceasar Pino, the economic development led to entrance in professional field but with a limitation to enter the corporate level thereby making them considered as futile presence (1). The letters of Marjorie Agosin and Emma Sepulveda in 1960s provide a firsthand view of gender roles in Latin America during the concerned times. Coupled with stringent orthodoxy, the society portrayed in the letters is one that defines a fine line as to what was expected of women in the twentieth century. The chronicles portray that makeup was considered to besmirch the purity of women, their obligations coalesced with child birth and development, their duty to be in the kitchen to cook at parties even with servants were present and where in families men always won (1-14). Behind the shift from stark gender roles division to the acceptance of women in economy, politics and society, there lies a strong role of women movements emerging in the late twentieth century. Today, Latin American women have seats in governmental offices and have Ministries (De Ferranti 81). However, for the share of changing roles that women in Latin America enjoy today is due to a far greater oppression of the gender in past that has led to a slow, but ongoing process of amelioration. Works Cited Agosin, Marjorie, and Emma Sepulveda. Amigas : Letters of Friendship and Exile. US: Texas Press, 2001. Cleary, Edward L. The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated, 1997 De Ferranti, David M. , Guillermo E. , and Francisco Ferreira. Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean : Breaking with History? Washington, D. C: World Bank Publications, 2004 Pino, Julio Cesar. â€Å"Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History. † History Teacher 34. 3 (01 May 2001): 353-360. ERIC. EBSCO. Capella University. US. 10 May 2009 .

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Regulation and Criminal Liability Essay

Currently in the United States, the Americans continue to face unfair treatments of health care professionals within the work place. Regulates and laws have been created and set forth to help individuals’ feel protected and to know their rights as a victim of such criminal acts. People deserve to be treated with respect, especially in the care of health professionals. In this paper will contain information on criminal liabilities of health professionals and show people who may have been violated by health care providers the steps of filing a civil complaint. In addition, the paper will go into investigating allegations and disciplinary actions. Up-to-date regulatory policy regarding health care professionals is based on the speculation that the market for resources in health care is unsuccessful because consumers do not have complete facts about the nature of services these professionals offer. The outcome of some professionals possibly will exploit consumers on the condition lesser-quality services. The theory of economics proposes that in the absence of order, many health care professionals might offer minimum quality services at expensive quality prices to uneducated consumers. Therefore, the main justification for managing health professionals is to expand the quality of their services and to guard the interests of unaware health care consumers. Health care professional guidelines restrict access into the profession by setting the least possible measures of education and experience mandatory to practice. Furthermore, those regulations identify the legal acceptable boundaries of training for the health care provider or the permissible scope of health care professionals’ training and state the permitted business training of health care professionals. In the United States the federal system of government, regulates every states health care professional practice. Health professional training performances are statutory laws that create regulatory or licensing agencies or boarding to promote rules that order medical  practice. State licensing laws initiating the lesser level of education and experience needed to practice, explain the roles of the profession and bound the act of these roles to licensed individuals. State occupation practice limits restrictions on the services of professionals by for-profit firms, limitations on the operation of trade names, restrictions on the process of numerous workplaces, and boundaries on the place of health care professionals’ workplaces. Earlier in 1977 state companies practice limitations on frequently incorporated restrictions on marketing by professionals. Principles of Medical Ethics, the American Medical Association (AMA) declare a physician shall obey the law† and â€Å"record doctors’ insufficient in character or ability, or engaging in deception or fraud. AMA could refuse mem bership to doctors guilty of criminal activity, in addition to physicians charged with crimes in different countries. Reference to petition for licensure, the Federation of State Medical Boards, in connection of state medical boards’ responsibility for punishing physicians, suggests that every state medical board run criminal record review as part of licensure application practice and all candidates with a criminal background, comes before the committee for questioning to examine the candidates ability for licensure. AMA recognizes that doctors can be criminally arraigned merely to the degree of statue, and these regulations unlike state to state. Although illustrations from our data demonstrate the regular ordinary sanctions by state medical boards after the doctors have been criminally found guilty. According to AMA recent data less than 80 percent of doctors who carried out sexual acts offenses the physicians’ licenses would be revoked, suspended, or surrendered. Merely 53 % of doctors convicted of criminally possessing, using, or prescribing controlled substances and only 40% of doctors were guilty of criminal wrongdoing connected to the practice of medicine had their licenses surrendered, revoked, or suspended. The statistics show a system that permits questionable physicians to remain practicing medicine after displaying clear unethical and risky behavior. If an individual thinks that a health care provider, local or state government agency, has discriminated against he/she based on national origin, race, age, or disability, one can file a civil rights complaint. OCR can examine disability-based discrimination complaints against programs ran by HHS. Below certain regulations and statue, OCR has  slight authority to explore complaints of discrimination based on religion and sex. If an individual believe his/her health care provider moral safety rights have been breached, individuals can file a complaint with OCR. The Case Resolution Manual for Civil Rights Investigations (CRM) offers OCR managers and staff with the strategies and process designed to effectively and promptly investigate, evaluate and settle compliance and complaint evaluation, and to implement violation locations where guaranteed. When filling a complaint an individual have to follow the complaint requirements and that is followed by: (http://www.hhs.gov) Be filed in writing, either electronically via or paper the OCR Complaint Portal, by email, fax, or mail. Social service provider or health care provider involved, and describe the acts or omissions, that one believed over stepped the civil rights regulations or law. Must be filed in 180 days of when the omission complained of or act occurred. OCR could prolong the 180-day period if individual can provide a worthy reason. In conclusion individuals need to educate themselves on the laws which supposed to protect them from mistreatment of any health care provider and learn the appropriate ways to handle the situation in case of becoming a victim to any type of neglect or abuse. Physicians’ and nurses should follow the quality standards. Patients are treated with kindness, dignity, compassion, respect, honesty and understanding. References Article in Health Matrix: United States Physicians’ Disciplined for Criminal Activity, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from: http://www.citizen.org/page.aspx?pid=696 Principles of Medical Ethics, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from; http:// http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/principles-medical-ethics.page United States Department of Health and Human Resources, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from: http://www. hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/complaints/index.html#file Wilson,D., The Regulation of Health Care professionals other than Physicians, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from;

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Agar Diffusion Investigation Essays

Agar Diffusion Investigation Essays Agar Diffusion Investigation Essay Agar Diffusion Investigation Essay Having considered the phenomena of diffusion and osmosis I have been told to do a piece of coursework to investigate the rate of diffusion when using different concentrations of acid. I have been told to use Agar. Agar is extracted from sea weed and after dissolving in hot water it cools to form a solid jelly although 99% of this is water. The agar is an inert medium that I am going to use to investigate the rate of diffusion. The agar I will be given has been made alkaline by adding a small amount of NaOH and has the indicator (phenolphthalein) incorporated which is pink in alkaline conditions. As the H+ ions from the acid diffuse in the indicator within the agar will become colourless. The acid I will be given will be 1M Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). I will be given one Petri dish of pre-prepared pink agar poured to an approximate depth of 1cm. Safety It is important to remember safety whenever working in a laboratory particularly when handling corrosive solutions such as acids and bases. To this extent it is essential to always where safety goggles when doing any experiment. In order to ensure the safety of myself, and my friends I am going to take the following safety precautions during my experiment: * Ensure safety goggles are worn at all times during the experiment. * Always ensure any beakers containing HCl are kept in away from the edge of the table. * Always wash hands after handling corrosive materials. * Ensure a good supply of paper towels is available in the event of a spillage and be sure to wipe up any spillages immediately before they escalate. Preliminary Variables I am going to investigate what variables I am going to change during my preliminary investigation. During my preliminary investigation I am going to investigate how both concentration and volume of HCl effect the time taken to turn the phenolphthalein colourless. I am also going to investigate what amount of Agar jelly solution should be used. I am going to use a cork borer and a straw to cut pieces of the agar jelly solution and compare results between the two. Preliminary Investigation Method To being with obtain one test tube rack and one stopwatch. Now take six test tubes and use the cork borer and a scalpel (if necessary) to lift three pieces of agar jelly solution. Drop the three cork borer size agar solution pieces into the first three test tubes. Take a straw and use it to cut a further three pieces of agar jelly solution using the same method as before. Drop the three straw size agar solution pieces into the final three test tubes. Now add 5ml 1M, 0.5M and 0.2M HCl to the test tubes one by one and start the stopwatch; adding the different concentrations of HCl to one of the different sized agar solutions each: Wait until the agar has turned completely colourless in the first test tube then record the time taken and repeat the process for the next test tube. Once all of the test tubes have been timed, dispose of the HCl and agar jelly in the appropriate way and clean out all 6 test tubes thoroughly. Now return the six test tubes to the test tube rack and repeat the experiment only this time varying volume of HCl used instead. Once all six test tubes have their appropriate agar jelly solution added, add 15ml, 10ml and 5ml of 0.5M HCl to the test tubes one by one and start the stop watch, adding the different volumes of HCl to one of the different sized agar solutions each: As before wait until the agar has turned completely colourless in the first test tube then record the time taken and repeat the process for the next test tube.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Elizabeth The First

Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth Tudor has been called â€Å"perhaps history’s greatest monarch.† She is by far histories most powerful woman. The government of England in the time of Elizabeth I was very different to its modern day counterpart. Queen Elizabeth was very much a ruler, unlike the monarchs today who are largely figureheads, and made all the major decisions of government herself. The crown was not above the law, but had to act in accordance with it, but Elizabeth was still a very authoritative woman. No law could be passed without her consent. She could choose the religion of the country, decide when parliament was going to sit and what they could discuss, opt whether or not the country would go to war, make decisions regarding education, the welfare of her subjects, even what food they should eat and the clothes they were to wear. She also had the right to send men or women to prison and, or order executions. Everyone in the country had to obey her. Not to obey her was against the law, and could be treason, for which the penalty was dismemberment and death. (Life and Times) The reign of Elizabeth I began with a sense of uncertainty and danger, which would rarely leave it. The fears that assailed her new subjects at the end of 1558 were shared by many of their European neighbors, for England did not stand-alone. â€Å"Invasion of strangers, civil dissensions, the doubtful disposition of the succeeding prince, were cast in every man’s conceit as present peril.† (Brigden pg 213) The whole premise of Elizabeth’s right to rule was her divine right as a sovereign. She made no attempt to hide the fact that she believed that she was the child Henry VIII had wanted. To the rest of the world she was illegitimate, her father’s marriage to Anne Boleyn being void, and had no authority to govern. Only to her subject’s reliance in their social hierarchy kept her on the throne. Elizabeth determined to rule by love rather... Free Essays on Elizabeth The First Free Essays on Elizabeth The First Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth Tudor has been called â€Å"perhaps history’s greatest monarch.† She is by far histories most powerful woman. The government of England in the time of Elizabeth I was very different to its modern day counterpart. Queen Elizabeth was very much a ruler, unlike the monarchs today who are largely figureheads, and made all the major decisions of government herself. The crown was not above the law, but had to act in accordance with it, but Elizabeth was still a very authoritative woman. No law could be passed without her consent. She could choose the religion of the country, decide when parliament was going to sit and what they could discuss, opt whether or not the country would go to war, make decisions regarding education, the welfare of her subjects, even what food they should eat and the clothes they were to wear. She also had the right to send men or women to prison and, or order executions. Everyone in the country had to obey her. Not to obey her was against the law, and could be treason, for which the penalty was dismemberment and death. (Life and Times) The reign of Elizabeth I began with a sense of uncertainty and danger, which would rarely leave it. The fears that assailed her new subjects at the end of 1558 were shared by many of their European neighbors, for England did not stand-alone. â€Å"Invasion of strangers, civil dissensions, the doubtful disposition of the succeeding prince, were cast in every man’s conceit as present peril.† (Brigden pg 213) The whole premise of Elizabeth’s right to rule was her divine right as a sovereign. She made no attempt to hide the fact that she believed that she was the child Henry VIII had wanted. To the rest of the world she was illegitimate, her father’s marriage to Anne Boleyn being void, and had no authority to govern. Only to her subject’s reliance in their social hierarchy kept her on the throne. Elizabeth determined to rule by love rather...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Napoleons Empire

Napoleon's Empire The borders of France and the states ruled by France grew during the wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. On May 12th, 1804 these conquests received a new name: the Empire, ruled by a hereditary Bonaparte Emperor. The first – and in the end only – emperor was Napoleon, and at times he ruled vast swathes of the European continent: by 1810 it was easier to list the regions he didn’t dominate: Portugal, Sicily, Sardinian, Montenegro, and the British, Russian and  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Ottoman Empires. However, while it’s easy to think of the Napoleonic Empire as one monolith, there was considerable variation within the states. The Make-Up of the Empire The empire was divided into a three-tier system. Pays Rà ©unis: this was land governed by the administration in Paris, and included the France of the natural frontiers (i.e. the Alps, the Rhine and the Pyrenees), plus states now subsumed into this government: Holland, Piedmont, Parma, the Papal States, Tuscany, the Illyrian Provinces and a lot more of Italy. Including France, this totaled 130 departments in 1811 – the peak of the empire – with forty-four million people. Pays Conquis: a set of conquered, although supposedly independent, countries which were ruled by people approved by Napoleon (largely his relatives or military commanders), designed to buffer France from attack. The nature of these states ebbed and flowed with the wars, but included the Confederation of the Rhine, Spain, Naples, the Duchy of Warsaw and parts of Italy. As Napoleon developed his empire, these came under greater control. Pays Allià ©s: The third level was fully independent states who were bought, often unwillingly, under Napoleon’s control. During the Napoleonic Wars Prussia, Austria and Russia were both enemies and unhappy allies. The Pays Rà ©unis and Pays Conquis formed the Grand Empire; in 1811, this totaled 80 million people. In addition, Napoleon redrew central Europe, and another empire ceased: the Holy Roman Empire was disbanded on August 6th, 1806, never to return. Nature of the Empire The treatment of states in the empire varied depending on how long they remained part of it, and whether they were in the Pays Rà ©unis or Pays Conquis. It’s worth pointing out that some historians reject the idea of time as a factor, and focus on regions in which pre-napoleon events inclined them to be more receptive to Napoleon’s changes. States in the Pays Rà ©unis before the Napoleonic era were fully departmentalized and saw the benefits of the revolution, with the end of ‘feudalism’ (such as it existed), plus land redistribution. States in both the Pays Rà ©unis and Pays Conquis received the Napoleonic legal Code, the Concordat, tax demands, and administration based on the French system. Napoleon also created ‘dotations’. These were areas of land seized from conquered enemies where the entire revenue was given to Napoleon’s subordinates, conceivably forever if the heirs stayed loyal. In practice they were a huge drain on the loca l economies: the Duchy of Warsaw lost 20% of revenue in dotations. Variation remained in outlying areas, and in some privileges survived through the era, unaltered by Napoleon. His introduction of his own system was less ideologically driven and more practical, and he would pragmatically accept survivals which the revolutionaries would have cut out. His driving force was to keep control. Nevertheless, we can see the early republics being transformed slowly into more centralized states as Napoleon’s reign developed and he envisioned more of a European empire. One factor in this was the success and failure of the men Napoleon had placed in charge of conquered lands – his family and officers – because they varied greatly in their loyalty, sometimes proving more interested in their new land than aiding their patron despite in most cases owing everything to him. Most of Napoleon’s clan appointments were poor local leaders, and an exasperated Napoleon sought more control. Some of Napoleon’s appointees were genuinely interested in effecting liberal reforms and being loved by their new states: Beauharnais created a stable, loyal and balanced government in Italy and was very popular. However, Napoleon prevented him from doing more, and often clashed with his other rulers: Murat and Joseph ‘failed’ with the constitution and Continental System in Naples. Louis in Holland rejected much of his brother’s demands and was ousted from power by an angry Napoleon. Spain, under the ineffectual Joseph, couldn’t really have gone more wrong. Napoleon’s Motives In public, Napoleon was able to promote his empire by stating laudatory aims. These included safeguarding the revolution against Europe’s monarchies and spreading freedom throughout oppressed nations. In practice, Napoleon was driven by other motives, although their competing nature is still debated by historians. It’s less likely that Napoleon began his career with a plan to rule Europe in a universal monarchy – a sort of Napoleon dominated empire which covered the whole continent – and more likely he evolved into wanting this as the opportunities of war brought him greater and greater success, feeding his ego and expanding his aims. However, a hunger for glory and a hunger for power – whatever power that may be - seem to have been his over-riding concerns for much of his career. Napoleon’s Demands on Empire As parts of the empire, the conquered states were expected to assist in furthering Napoleon’s aims. The cost of the new warfare, with greater armies, meant more expense than ever before, and Napoleon used the empire to for funds and troops: success funded more attempts at success. Food, equipment, goods, soldiers, and tax were all drained out by Napoleon, much of it in the form of heavy, often annual, tribute payments. Napoleon had another demand on his empire: thrones and crowns on which to place and reward his family and followers. While this form of patronage left Napoleon in control of the empire by keeping leaders tightly bound to him – although putting close supporters in power didn’t always work, such as in Spain and Sweden – it also let him keep his allies happy. Large estates were carved out of the empire both to reward and to encourage the recipients to fight to keep the empire. However, all these appointments were told to think of Napoleon and France first, and their new homes second. The Briefest of Empires The empire was created militarily and had to be enforced militarily. It survived the failures of Napoleon’s appointments only as long as Napoleon was winning to support it. Once Napoleon failed, it was swiftly able to eject him and many of the puppet leaders, although the administrations often remained intact. Historians have debated whether the empire could have lasted and whether Napoleon’s conquests if allowed to last, would have created a unified Europe still dreamt of by many. Some historians have concluded that Napoleon’s empire was a form of continental colonialism that could not have lasted. But in the aftermath, as Europe adapted, a lot of the structures Napoleon put in place survived. Of course, historians debate exactly what and how much, but new, modern administrations could be found all over Europe. The empire created, in part, more bureaucratic states, better access to the administration for the bourgeoisie, legal codes, limits on the aristocracy an d church, better tax models for the state, religious toleration and secular control in church land and roles.