Monday, September 30, 2019

Behavioral Economics Essay

Introduction Behavioral Economics is an extremely important field of psychology; it seeks to expand the current tools that researchers use in economics and finance to introduce new models of human behavior that are adequately founded in psychological research. The Behavior Economics is crucial in business decision making process. The knowledge in Business and Financial Literacy is very important for their direct application to Business and Consulting Psychology. Understanding Financial Management which includes: profit & loss, cash flow, balance sheets, ratios, ROI, working capital, budgeting, financial planning, and corporate finance; and Business Management that includes: business strategy, strategic market management, micro-economic analysis, sustainable competitive advantage, strategic positioning, diversification, acquisitions, mergers, and technology management, will allow the consultant to help businesses increase their profits and improve their company’s culture. Business Management and Strategy Business Strategy is a management plan of action that an organization put in place in order to achieve a particular goal or a set of goals and objectives, this strategy can help the organization differentiate itself from its competitors. In order for a company to differentiate itself from their competitors, they need to successfully implement a strategy that will determine the market that the business will compete, the investment needed, the strategies required to compete in that specific market and the strategic resources or competencies that underline the strategy by providing a important sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) (Aaker, 2001). Budgeting and Financial Planning There are many vital managerial tools that assist in managing a successful business. Budgeting is the most common and widely used tool for planning and control; it is essentially a guideline that focuses on spending, it can breaks down all the business’ expenses in different categories, per example, utilities, payroll, taxes, materials, equipment, etc, also all the income that the business expect to receive in a certain period of time, this period of time is usually yearly, monthly or sometimes weekly. Once the manager has all the estimated income and expenses for that period of time, the budget will start to take shape. The budget goal is to subtract all the expected expenses from the expected income for the same period and still have a positive cash balance. A budget should not be a rigid and fixed tool from which you may never deviate (Wood, 2012). The Financial Planning focuses on allocating resources efficiently, specifically achieving long range goals. In summary, while the budget focuses on the daily functioning of the organization, the future depends greatly on the financial planning which in turn relies on budgeting in order to be effective. Corporate Finance The Corporate Finance addresses how organizations face their financial obligation, to intelligently invest their resources, achieve the correct combination of financing to fund their investments and return a profit to the investors; hence achieving value maximization. When a company invests in a project or multiple projects, this project will generate expenses and will create revenue for the company, but what is a project? Project is any activity that generates a series of cash flows for the organization. The company uses the revenue in excess of expenses to fund new projects, improve existing projects or pay its investors (Spiegel, 2000). Per example, applying a low-cost strategy, businesses can remove all frills and extras from its products and services (Aaker, 2001), making the organization more competitive and profitable. Financial ratios The Financial Ratios are practical indicators of a company’s financial and performance situation. The most important indicator of a business performance is profits. Profits provide the basis for the internally or externally generated capital that the organization needs to follow its growth strategies, to replace out of dated plants and equipments, and to absorb market risk (Aaker, 2001). But how can we measure the profitability of an organization? The most basic and important tool to measure profitability is the Return on Assets, which is calculated by dividing the organization’s profits by the assets involved (Aaker, 2001). The ROI measures how much profit the organization can produce with the capital that is available to them (Gitman, 2009). The company’s goal is to increase the ROI, because higher the ROI, the better. That’s why the ROA is so important for managers, investors and other business that may sell to this company. Strategic Marketing The Strategic Marketing includes creating a marketing plan that describes in detail the marketing mix, segmentation, and branding decisions. Branding is not just to increase sales in one product, but to any product that is associated with that brand. That’s why engagement matters; it pulls customers back into the business and at the end of the day leads to repeat sales (Goodman, 2012). There are many different ways to use branding to support the organizations growth strategy, but for each specific growth strategy that are different approaches that can be used in order to achieve success (Aaker, 2001). Sustainable Branding will also increase customer loyalty where customers will recognize the quality of the product or service every time that they see the brand (Aaker, 2001). Downsizing, Mergers & Acquisitions Mergers & Acquisitions essentially have the same features where the end result is one company where two existed. As stated by Shook & Roth (2010), during a merger and acquisition process, the organization will try to eliminate any overlapping positions and this process can cause downsize, which is the process of restructuring a organization in a way that brings reduction of a part of the company’s employees. If the M&A is successful, the new company will be more cost effective, efficient and mostly important, profitable (Holden, 2010). Mergers and acquisitions can also reduce significantly the competition and the overhead for both companies (Holden, 2010). Consultants can be key facilitators of a smooth transition (during a M&A) by ensuring that there is sufficient understanding and ‘buy-in’ at the leadership level about the costs of not addressing the culture issue early in the M&A process. There is plenty of empirical evidence suggesting the failure rate of M&A’s due to issues with the unsuccessful meshing of a newly merged corporate culture. During an M&A, cultural change often represents the ‘soft side’ of the transaction. Everybody agrees about its importance but it seems too frequently to take a rear seat in the stated price tag synergies to be accomplished, as well as, how the new administrative track that needs to be quickly put in practice. Conclusion The main goal of a business consultant is to provide a professional or/and expert advice, but in order to do it, it’s vital that consultants understand the need to become an expert on their client’s business and industry; it’s also very important that consultants understand the need to communicate in their clients’ language. Also, in order to be effective, the consultant should be able to use motivation to trigger the organization members to change their behavior in order to achieve the organization goals (Fernandez-Huerga, 2008). As a consultant, my goal is to support the company’s administration to resolve management, manufacturing, marketing, or other issues by providing: * Focus and direction, * Expert analytical skills, * Objectivity, and * Knowledge and experience obtained from earlier assignments Also as a professional I will help clients to define a project’s goal and capacity, and together with administration prepare a comprehensive proposal to document how the project will be implemented in order to achieve the desired objectives and steps along the way. Also I will make sure that the proposed changes are approved by the client before put in practice. Another very important issue is to maintain confidentiality during and after the assignment. My ultimate goal as a consultant will be to develop a concept of a sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) and to neutralize the SCAs of competitors (Aaker, 2001). Using the Game Strategy, which is a study of strategic decision making, the consultant will be able to develop important insights concerning the strategy and how it should be addressed providing a rational choices for businesses dilemmas (Wood, 2012). References Aaker, D. (2001). Developing business strategies (6th Ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Berman, K. & Knight, J. (2008). Financial Intelligence For HR Professionals. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press. Fernandez-Huerga, E. (Sep2008). The economic behavior of human beings: The institutional/post-Keynesian model. Journal of Economic Issues (Association for Evolutionary Economics, 42 (3), 709-726. Gitman, L. J. (2009). Principles of managerial finance. (12 ed.). Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Goodman, G. F. (2012). Engagement marketing: How small business wins in a socially connected world. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Holden , P. (2010). Economies of scale: a quick explanation [Video file]. Retrieved from YouTube website: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZshS761WsE Marks, M. (2003). Surviving MADness. HR Magazine, 48(6), 86. Marks, M., & Mirvis, P. H. (2012). Applying OD to Make Mergers and Acquisitions Work. OD Practitioner, 44(3), 5-12. Shook, L., & Roth, G. (2010). Downsiz ings, mergers, and acquisition: Perspectives of human resources development practitioners. Journal of European Industrial Training 32(2), 135-153. Spiegel, M. (2000). Principles of corporate finance. Unpublished raw data, Yale School of Management, Retrieved from http://som.yale.edu/~spiegel/intro/sampread.pdf Teamtechnology.co.uk. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/changemanagement.html Wickramasignhe, V. & Karunaratne, C. (Mar2009). People management in mergers and acquisitions in Sri Lanka: employee perception. Journal of Human Resource Management, 20 (3), 694-715. Wood, N. (2012). Behavioral Economics. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.nancywood.org/Business/Behavior/Behavioral.pptx

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Historical Background of the 1987 Constitution Essay

The history of the 1987 Constitution began on 11 April 1899, the date when the Treaty of Paris between the United and Spain of 10 December 1898 became effective upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of both countries. But the sources of the 1987 Constitution are (i) McKinley’s Instructions to the Second Philippine Commission; (ii) Spooner Amendment; (iii) Philippine Bill of 1902; (iv) Jones Law of 1916, otherwise known as the Philippine Autonomy Act; (v) 1935 Constitution; (vi) 1973 Constitution and (vi) Freedom Constitution of 1986 and its implementing orders. Treaty of Paris Under the Treaty of Paris, the Philippines was ceded by Spain to the United States. Spain relinquished its sovereignty over the Philippine Islands, and with this, all laws of a political nature were automatically abrogated. The Treaty provided that the civil and political status of all inhabitants of the islands was to be determined by the US Congress. The Philippines in turn, was not given the status of an â€Å"incorporated territory† (as to make it a candidate for statehood) and so ex proprio vigore, the US Constitution did not apply to the Philippines unless the US Congress expressly enacted its provisions. McKinley’s Instructions President McKinley, legislating as Commander-in-Chief, issued on 7 April 1900 his â€Å"Letter of Instruction to the Second Philippine Commission † under Taft. It set up a â€Å"divided civil and military government† with the existing Military governor as the Executive, and a Philippine Commission, created on 1 September 1900, as the Legislative, both representing the US President as Commander-in-Chief. It also extended to the Philippines all the rights in the Bill of Rights of the US Federal Constitution, except the right to bear arms (because the country was in rebellion) and the right to a trial by jury (because the Americans distrusted the Filipinos capacity to be a just judge of his peers). The right to jury trial of an American charged with a crime in the Philippines was denied by the courts in US v Dorr, 2 Phil 332 (1903) by virtue of the Letter of Instruction. This was the first Organic Act (a law which establishes the structure and limitations of the government) of the Philippines. What it lacked, as a constitution, were the ratification by the people, and the right of amendment (which was reserved solely to the US President). The judiciary was subsequently established on 11 June 1901, with a Supreme Court, Courts of First Instance, and Justice of Peace Courts. Spooner Amendment On 4 July 1901, the Spooner Amendment, which was actually a rider to the â€Å"Army and Navy Appropriations Act,† changed the then â€Å"divided, military and civil government† into a fully civil government, under the US Congress. All acts of the Philippine Commission would now begin: â€Å"Be it enacted by the authority of the US government,† and no longer by authority of the US President. Philippine Bill of 1902 The US Congress now in control of the Philippines, ratified all the organic acts of the President, in order to prevent disruption of government, and on 1 July 1900, passed the Philippine Bill of 1902, which was to be organic act of the Philippines from 1902 to 1906. The organic act introduced significant provisions to constitutional history. The Philippine Commission was the upper house. It was under the Governor-General who retained all the executive power, including the power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus upon recommendation of the Philippine Commission. It established an elective lower house called the Philippine Assembly, composed entirely of Filipinos. It called for the first election in the Philippines to fill up, the membership in the lower house, as soon as the Philippine insurrection stopped and there was a condition of general peace, except in the Moro and Non-Christian provinces. A census was taken and completed on 28 March 1903 and with a certification of peace and of Filipino acceptance of the US government made by the Philippine Commission on 29 March 1907, the election for the Philippine Assembly was conducted on 10 July 1907, with Osmena as speaker. The Bill also defined for the first time who the citizens of the Philippines were. They were all the inhabitants of the Philippine islands who were subjects of Spain as of 11 April 1899, who continued to reside therein, and all the children born subsequent thereto. This definition is still good law today. Jones Law On 29 August 1916, the US Congress passed the Jones Law, otherwise known as the Philippine Autonomy Act. It established a tripartite government with real separation of powers; this was the prototype of our present set-up. The executive power was in the hands of an American Governor-General, who was independent of the Legislature, and who was given the power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus and impose martial law without the recommendation of the Legislature. The Legislature was composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives, all composed of Filipinos. The judiciary continued to be made up of the Supreme Court, the CFIs and Justice of Peace Courts. Under this set-up, while the Filipinos has all the legislative power, the Americans had all the executive power and thus, also the control of the government. Thus, in the Board of Control (National Coal Corporation) cases, the US Supreme Court ruled, despite the dissent of Holmes and Brandeis, that the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House could not vote the stocks of the NCC and elect its directors because this was a political function. Only the Governor-General could vote the government shares, said the court. The definition of who were citizens of the Philippines first enunciated in the Philippine Bill of 1902, was carried over by the Jones Law. Tydings-McDuffie Law Although this was not an organic act, it is important in the constitutional history of the Philippines because it was to be the enabling statute, providing the mechanism whereby the constitution of an independent Philippines could be adopted. The law, upon its acceptance by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines, provided for (i) the calling of a Constitutional Convention to draft a Constitution for the Philippines, (ii) the adoption of a Constitution that established a republican government, with a Bill of Rights, and a separation of church and state, (iii) the submission of the draft to the US President for certification that the Constitution was in conformity with the conditions set by the Tydings-McDuffie Law, and (iv) its ratification by the people in a plebiscite. Complete independence was to take place ten (10) years after its effectivity. 1935 Constitution Accordingly, on 30 July 1934, an election was held to choose the delegates to the Constitutional Convention. Claro M. Recto was elected President of the Convention. On 8 February 1935, the Concon approved the draft. On 23 March 1935, the draft was certified by the President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt as conforming to the Tydings-McDuffie Law. On 14 May 1935, it was ratified by the people in a plebiscite, with the provisions on the qualifications of the President, Vice-President and members of Congress taking effect upon ratification. In September 1935, the first election under the 1935 Constitution was conducted with Manuel Luis Quezon as President and Sergio Osmena as Vice- President. On 15 November 1935, upon the inauguration of the Commonwealth, the 1935 Constitution took effect. This Constitution was to serve as the charter of the Commonwealth, and upon withdrawal of US sovereignty, of the Republic. The Constitution provides for a tripartite government, with the executive lodged in the President who had a six-year term, the legislative in a unicameral National Assembly, and the judiciary in a Supreme Court, CFIs and Justice of Peace Courts as before. In 1940, it was amended to provide for (a) a bicameral Congress with a Senate and a House of Representatives; (b) a term of four years for the President, but with re-election and (c) the establishment of an independent constitutional body known as the Commission on Elections. War ensued, and the Philippines was so devastated that the declaration of its independence, due 15 November 1945 had to be postponed. At any rate, on 23 April 1946, the election of the first officials of the Philippine Republic was held, and on 4 July 1946, the Republic was inaugurated and the Philippines became â€Å"politically† independent of the US. Theoretically, to an extent that sovereignty is never granted to a people but is earned by them as they assert their political will, then it is a misnomer to say that 4 July 1946 was the day US granted independence to the Philippines. More appropriately, it was the day when the US withdrew its sovereignty over the Philippines, thus giving the Filipino people an occasion to assert their own independence. But not â€Å"economically†. On 30 April 1946, one week after the election, the US Congress passed the Bell Trade Act which would grant Philippine prime exports entry to the US free of customs duties from 1946 to 1954, and a gradual increase in duties from 1954 to 1974 (Laurel-Langley agreement), provided that the Philippines would grant US citizens and corporations the same privileges, and in addition, the right to explore natural resources of the Philippines in parity with the Filipinos, and to operate public utilities. This must be accepted by Congress, embodied in an Executive Agreement, and reflected as an amendment in the Constitution. The Senate approval of this bill gave rise to the case of Vera v Avelino, 77 Phil 192 (1946). The Senate then had 11 Nacionalistas and 13 Liberals. Three Nacionalista Senators-elect (Vera, Diokno and Romero), known to be against the Bell Trade Act, were prevented by the rest of the Senate, in what is known as â€Å"exclusion proceedings,† on grounds that their elections were marred with fraud. The political motivation was clear but the SC was conned into lifting the injunction it issued for the withholding of the suspension, because of the unfulfilled promise that the Senate would not carry out the suspension. With the balance of power offset, the Bell Trade Act was passed. Subsequently, the SC had to dismiss the petition on the ground that the principle of separation of powers, it could not order a co-equal branch to reinstate a member. The Senate authorized President Roxas to enter into an Executive Agreement, which he did on 3 July 1946, the eve of the declaration of Philippine Independence. Then came the amendment of the Constitution in order to include the Parity Rights Agreement, which gave rise to the case of Mabanag v Lopez Vito, 78 Phil 1 (1947). Under the Amendatory Provisions of the 1935 Constitution, Congress, acting as constituent body, needed 3/4 vote to propose an amendment to the Constitution. But with the three Senators still suspended, only the 21 remaining were used as the basis for computing the 3/4 requirement. When this was raised in court, it begged off from ruling on the ground that it was a political question. It also used the Enrolled Bill Theory. So with the amendment proposed, it was subsequently ratified on 5 March 1947. The third time the Constitution was amended (1940, 1947) was in 1967. A Resolution of both houses provided for (a) the amendment of the Constitution by a Convention, (b) the increase of seats in the House of Representatives to make the Concon sufficiently representative, and (c) allowing members of the House as delegates without forfeiting their seats. The first was approved, the second and third were rejected. This became the subject matter of Gonzales v COMELEC. Election of delegates to the Concon took place on 10 November 1970. Then the ConCon met on 1 June 1971. Before it finished its work, it came up with a resolution calling for an amendment to the 1935 Constitution reducing the voting age from 21 to 18, so that a wider base could vote in the ratification of the Constitution then being drafted. A plebiscite was set by the COMELEC for 8 November 1971 but this was enjoined by the SC in the case of Tolentino v COMELEC, the court ruling that a piece-meal amendment was not allowed by the 1935 Constitution since it provided that the amendments were to be ratified at â€Å"an election† which meant only one election. The Court upheld its jurisdiction over the ConCon by arguing that since the Concon derived its power from the Constitution, it was thus limited by the Constitution. But it was subsequently overtaken by Martial Law. On 30 November 1972, the Convention submitted its â€Å"draft† to the President, who called on a plebiscite to ratify the Constitution. This was questioned in the case of Planas v COMELEC, 49 SCRA 105 (1973) on the ground that there can be no freedom of expression under Martial Law. But the case was rendered moot and academic when the President cancelled the plebiscite and instead held a citizens’ assembly on 10 to 15 January, 1973. On 17 January 1973, the President came up with a proclamation that the Constitution had come to full force and effect after its overwhelming ratification by the people in a viva voce vote. 1973 Constitution The validity of the ratification process was questioned in the case of Javellana v Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 30 (1973) but the failure of the SC to come up with the necessary votes to declare the act as unconstitutional forced it into the conclusion that â€Å"there are no further obstacles to considering the constitution in force and effect.† The 1973 Constitution was amended four times. The first, in 1976, gave the President, legislative powers even if the Interim Batasang Pambansa was already operating. The second, in 1980 was not significant. It merely raised the retirement of justices of the SC from 65 to 70 as to keep Fernando for five more years. The third, in 1980 changed the form of government from Parliamentary to Presidential. The fourth, in 1984, responded to the succession problem by providing for a Vice-President. The start of the end of the Marcos years, of course, could be treated as early as 21 August 1983. But its immediate precursor was the Snap Election which the President was forced to call and set on 7 February 1986 to respond to the clamor for popular mandate. The validity of the â€Å"Snap Election Law† called by the Batasang Pambansa was raised in the case of Philippine Bar Association v COMELEC, 140 SCRA 455 (1985). The issue was raised because of the conditional letter of resignation sent by Mr. Marcos to the Batasan, making his resignation effective only upon (i) the holding of a Presidential election, (ii) the proclamation of a winner, (iii) the assumption into office by the winning candidate. It was contended that a conditional resignation was not allowed under the 1973 Constitution, for it did not create a vacancy, and without a vacancy, there was no reason to call for an election. But the SC failed to issue a preliminary injunction to enjoin the COMELEC from preparing for the election, thus making â€Å"the initially legal question into a political one.† In the meantime, the political parties have started campaigning and the people were so involved in the election that to stop it on legal grounds would frustrate their very will. And so, failing to come up with the majority to hold the Snap Election Law unconstitutional, the SC could not issue the injunction prayed for. The election went ahead. The rest is history. The results of the election were proclaimed by the Batasan, naming Marcos and Tolentino as the winners. But the February 2 to 25, 1986, EDSA revolution took place. On 25 February, Marcos was proclaimed in Malacanang by Makasiar, while Aquino was proclaimed in Club Filipino by Teehankee. Later that evening, Marcos fled to Hawaii. A. The February 1986 Revolution and the Proclamation of Provisional Constitution. Freedom Constitution What was the basis of the Aquino government? Did it assume power pursuant to the 1973 Constitution, or was it a revolutionary government? Proclamation No. 1, 25 February 1986 (Provisional government).– But Proclamation No. 3 which announced the Provisional Constitution, seemed to suggest that it was a revolutionary government, since in one of its whereases it announced that the â€Å"new government was installed, through a direct exercise of the power of the Filipino people assisted by units of the New Armed Forces,† referring to the EDSA revolution. The better view is the latter view. The Aquino government was not an offshoot of the 1973 Constitution for under that Constitution, a procedure was given for the election of the President — proclamation by the Batasan — and the candidate Batasan proclaimed was Marcos. Lawyers League v Aquino (GR Nos. 73748, 73972 & 73990, May 22, 1986).– This view was affirmed in Lawyers League v Aquino where the legitimacy of the Aquino government is questioned on the ground that it was not established pursuant to the 1973 Constitution. The SC ruled that petitioners had no personality to sue and their petition states no cause of action. â€Å"For the legitimacy of the Aquino government is not a justiciable matter. It belongs to the realm of politics where only the people of the Philippines are the judge. And the people have made the judgment; they have accepted the government of President Aquino which is in effective control of the entire country so that it is not merely a de facto government but in fact and law a de jure government. Moreover, the community of nations has recognized the legitimacy of the present government. All the eleven members of this Court as reorganized, have sworn to uphold the fundamental law of the Republic under her government.† The Aquino government was a result of a â€Å"direct state action.† It was not as if a small group revolted and succeeded in wresting power in the end. Rather, the entire state revolted and overthrew the government, so that right from the beginning, the installation was already lawful and the government was at all times de jure. In this regard, it must be noted that there is no such thing as a constitutional right of revolution. A revolution, from the point of view of a State, is always lawful since a State can never go wrong; it can change its government in whatever way the sovereign sees fit. But this right of revolution, inherent in sovereignty, cannot be recognized in a Constitution, for this would be self-destructive. The nature of a Constitution is to set-up a government and provide for an orderly way to change this government. A revolution contradicts this nature. Proclamation No. 3, March 25, 1986 (Provisional Constitution).– At any rate, the Provisional Constitution or Freedom Constitution was adopted on 25 March 1986 through Proclamation No. 3. It abrogated the legislative provisions of the 1973 Constitution, modified the provisions regarding the executive department, and totally reorganized the government. (Its use of the 1973 Constitution, however, is not be to construed that it was a continuation thereof.) Then it provided for the calling of a Constitutional Commission, composed of 30 to 50 members appointed by the President within 60 days. (In our history, all major constitutions — Malolos, 1935, 1971 — were drafted by elected delegates.) The President appointed 48 Commissioners, who worked on the Constitution from 1 June to 15 October 1986. The draft was submitted to the people in a referendum on 2 February 1987. On 11 February 1987, the President, through Proclamation No. 58, announced its overwhelming ratification by the people and that, therefore, it had come into force and effect. In Re: Saturnino Bermudez (145 SCRA 160)(1960).– In the case of In Re: Saturnino Bermudez , the SC held, quoting the previous case of Lawyers League v Aquino, that: [T]he legitimacy of the Aquino government is not a justiciable matter. It belongs to the realm of politics where only the people of the Philippines are the judge. And the people have made the judgment; they have accepted the government of President Aquino which is in effective control of the entire country so that it is not merely a de facto government but in fact and law a de jure government. Moreover, the community of nations has recognized the legitimacy of the present government. All the eleven members of this Court as reorganized, have sworn to uphold the fundamental law of the Republic under her government.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Developing skills of critical analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Developing skills of critical analysis - Essay Example The experimental study conducted by to evaluate the meaningfulness of the critical analysis skills in the education sector revealed very interesting facts.The texts chosen for the essay have been selected keeping in view the subject i.e.developing skills of critical analysis and focusing on the role of education in the development of these skills.In order to fully understand the relationship between the two, the sources of information I chose include journal articles, studies conducted by institutions and individuals and also research work on the importance of these skills and educations role in its development in the modern world today. (Doughty, 2007) in his study of the critical analysis skills, gives a very thorough knowledge on the subject, keeping in view the modern worlds requirements and also by focusing more on the educational aspect, that plays an important role in the development of these skills in the individuals. I believe the point of view presented in the study is good blend of both the basics of the critical analysis skills and explanation of educations impact in a good yet criticizing way, thus emphasizing on its relative importance. The techniques and alternatives described serve as a useful means to consider the developing of these skills at a large level and inculcating these skills in the students through education thus making a complete system. (Wallace, 2009) is an influential writer and has written many books for NASA. Her insight on the subject is very interesting as she provides a modern view on critical analysis skills. The discussion and views expressed in the article tend to focus on how individuals perceive information and how two different points of views are made and understood. This is where the importance of critical analysis and thinking is felt and realized that it is something which needs to be practiced and an individual needs to be skilled in it thus expressing his views in a more meaningful way. Moreover the point raised in the article is very prominent that like other skills that are measured and are thought to be meaningful, critical analysis skills should be given such importance as well. I agree with this point, that once the education system tries to adopt this approach, the individuals would be in a better position to practice these skills and this would help in their social up-bringing and overall betterment of the society as a whole. The study by (Facione, 1990) is a comprehensive report that concentrates on the importance of critical thinking and analysis skills using an appropriate research methodology and thus defining the skills requirement for critical analysis. The study also proposes recommendations as to how the education system can adopt certain methods and techniques so as to develop these skills and nurture the dispositions that can help in yielding positivity among the individual to inquire about their surroundings and interpret meaningful results. (Staff, 2005) gives a reasonabl e argument in the article that it is the educational philosophy and the student evaluation criteria in the education system that is not letting the skills of critical analysis being developed in students. It also discusses the importance of these skills for the students today and how the education system is affecting it, thus making the students suffer a great deal. The experimental study conducted by (Paul, Elder, & Bartell, 1995) to evaluate the meaningfulness of the critical analysis skills in the education sector revealed very interesting facts. The claims that the education sector should adopt measures for the development of the critical analysis skills in the students, the teachers themselves are not aware of the critical thinking and analysis skill. This definitely raises concerns that how the education system should be changed so that it becomes the practice, or norm in teaching. Developing skills of critical analysis Critical analysis is an important cognitive tool that is required in this modern world to be abreast with the world in contemplating ideas, assumptions, and actions in a reasonable and logical context. In this essay I would be discussing the importance of

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Models And The Changing Business Environment Essay

Business Models And The Changing Business Environment - Essay Example These models are applied so that the needs of the customers can be fulfilled. The enterprises require to structure those practices in such a way that the business model connect with innovation and forming of the business strategy (Hedman & Kalling, 2003). In this report a discussion about the changing environment will be presented. This will exhibit the development in the global economy and the change in the traditional practices which lead towards technological growth and development. Innovation in communication and the development in the technology will lead to the establishment of the global trading regime. Such methods have ignited the competition because the customers have more options available for choosing from the best available option. This practice has forced the organisations in developing a more customer centred approach. This study will show the application of the business models used by Apple Inc. which will clearly differentiate the traditional and the modern way the b usinesses are structured. ACCOUNTANTS VIEW OF THE BUSINESS MODEL The business model in accounting is related to the economic theory of the firms. This is related to the measurement issues which are within the financial reporting systems. The understanding of the organisational and financial structure of the business is also referred to as the accountant’s view of the business model. The incorporation of the business model is observed in the business plan, income statement and the cash flow projections of the organisation. Similarly, the application of the model is more conceptual rather than financial. The application of the model emphasises on the use of technology, benefits to the customers, identification of the target market segment, ensure appropriate flow of the revenue, mechanism for capturing value and utilising those for accomplishing the organisational goals and objectives (EFRAG, 2013). These methods are important because they create value for the customers, entice the payments and convert the payments into profits for the organisation. This shows a direct relation with the economic as well as accounting benefits for the organisations (Hedman & Kalling, 2003). DEFINITION BY TEECE (2010) The definition presented by Teece (2010) about the application of the business model specifies that the essence of the model is more conceptual rather than financial. The knowledge which is required for developing the business model requires that there is extensive knowledge of the economy, changing trends of the business and the adaptation towards e-commerce, outsourcing of the major business functions and restructuring the financial services around the globe. The excessive use of technology and the development of the model have developed an understanding of the ways the businesses need to understand and determine the customer value (Teece, 2010). The business model has a direct relation with the theoretical foundation of the business and this requires that a n equilibrium measure is created which develops perfect competition in the real world (Teece, 2010). The customers are less concerned about the products and they are more centred towards the solutions to their needs. Innovative ideas which aim at satisfying the customer needs succeed in attracting more customers rather than the traditional methods using which the business functions

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Civil Partnership, Marriage & Cohabitation Essay

Civil Partnership, Marriage & Cohabitation - Essay Example Standard property law is used for these couples.2 Cohabitation law may extend to opposite sex couples, same-sex couples, and platonic pairs.3 Therefore, just like with standard property law, if a cohabiting couple breaks up, and it is shown that one of the partners has not financially contributed to the home, even if that partner has contributed child care or labor, then than that partner is still not afforded an interest in the property. This is different in marriage – in marriage, the property is divided equitably between the spouses, regardless of the amount of financial contribution from the parties, or the lack thereof.4 This essay will examine the issues surrounding people who cohabit, as well as the specific cases regarding cohabitation, and will attempt to make recommendations that would help couples be better protected under the UK law. Cohabitation Law verses Marriage Law Property division is an issue when considering cohabitation law and marriage law. Cohabiting cou ples do not have the same property rights as married couples.5 Basically, if there is a cohabiting couple, and they break up, their property would be divided according to ordinary property law, which basically means that the property follows the title – if, for instance, there is a house with only one person's name on the deed, then that person alone is entitled to the property. If both person's name is on the deed, then the property would be divided between them evenly.6 With marital law, it is different – if a marital couple divorces, the property is divided between them equitably, regardless of whose name is on the deed.7 The Marital Causes Act 1973 gives a court the right to order the transfer of property from one party to the other upon the filing of a dissolution of marriage, or the court may also order the sale of property as well.8 This principle is shown in several cases that have been decided in UK Courts. One is Burns v. Burns, which states that if there is a non-working partner in a cohabiting relationship, and that non-working partner does not contribute financially towards the purchase of the house, or the mortgage payments, than that spouse is not entitled to a division of that property.9 The plaintiff in Burns lived with the defendant, without the benefit of marriage. Valerie, the plaintiff in Burns, took care of the children and stayed home, forgoing a career and money of her own. That said, when the relationship progressed Valerie went to work, and paid domestic bills from her salary, along with buying furniture and equipment for the house, while also spending money on children's clothes. She also decorated the interior of the house.10 Despite all that the plaintiff contributed to the household, the plaintiff did not get property rights in the house after the couple broke up. This was because Valerie's contribution to the household did not directly contribute to the finances of the home- she neither made house payments, nor did she contribute to the down-payment of the home.11 This principle was echoed in Lloyds Bank plc v. Rosset, which is a case involving a married couple. 12 In the Lloyds case, the court held that only financial contributions to the home, not conduct alone, would be relevant in awarding property rights, therefore the partner who did not contribute financially was not entitled to any portion of the house. Abbott v. Abbott,13

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Theories, models and techniques on Business Environment, Marketing and Assignment

Theories, models and techniques on Business Environment, Marketing and Human Resources - Assignment Example The growth of businesses in the modern market is depended on their ability to face the market’s pressures – as these pressures are reflected to the delays and the difficulties each organization faces when trying to secure its position towards its rivals. Current paper is important for the following reason: it explains the potential relationship among key organizational aspects, such as business environment, marketing and human resources. Moreover, it clarifies the terms under which the above frameworks can be developed. At this point, the reference to the theories and the techniques used for promoting organizational growth – especially in regard to the above frameworks – has been considered as necessary for highlighting the following issue: organization is a complex entity – meaning its processes but also its needs. For responding to the needs of organizations, as parts of the business environment in all markets worldwide, theorists and researchers have developed appropriate theoretical and practical models. It has been proved that the management of critical organizational factors can be based on tools and theories which have similar characteristics; however, the level at which these theories and techniques are effective is not standardized. The literature published in the specific organizational sectors, those mentioned above, has been carefully reviewed – as possible.... It has been proved that the management of critical organizational factors can be based on tools and theories which have similar characteristics; however, the level at which these theories and techniques are effective is not standardized. The literature published in the specific organizational sectors, those mentioned above, has been carefully reviewed – as possible. It has been proved that even if business operations are likely to be equally addressed – in terms of their needs – there are organizational sectors which are likely to attract more the attention of organization’s management team – for example HR needs are often set as a priority when designing the organizational plans while other aspects of the organization are not given equal attention, for example, the marketing of the firm’s products/ services. Such phenomenon is explained by the following fact: all firms are likely to be based on certain sectors/ operations. These sectors are not equal, in terms of their contribution in the development of daily organizational tasks. For instance, employees are traditionally considered as being the most important organizational asset; however, today, the role of employees within organizations has been changed – not only financially. The theories, models and techniques presented below reflect this inequality but at the same time they highlight the following problem: the monitoring on the firm’s practices is often problematic, meaning that employees are not always aware of their obligations towards the organization. The use of the theories, models and techniques suggested above could help to the increase of effectiveness of organizational plans – since the planners of the

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Education as a Group Activity Personal Statement

Education as a Group Activity - Personal Statement Example My experience has taught me that learning does not only take place while we are alone with a book, but that education is a group activity. The cooperation of my classmates and instructors was vital to my educational progress. There were days when I was frustrated by slowing the class down as they took the extra time to explain a concept to me. Still, they persisted and did not leave me to flounder in a sea of confusion. My teachers spent extra time during and after class to be sure that I had an understanding of the material. As their unselfish help supported me, it also provided a foundation for the trust that I had placed in them. I could ask questions without fear of being labeled silly or feeling out of place. Learning became a two way street where cooperation was the rule of the road. As I became more integrated into the class and became more fluent in English, I began to realize how diverse America really was. I gained an appreciation for the bountiful knowledge that we learn from each other and from our cultural backgrounds. I suddenly found that I was not alone in being different, from a different country, and a different world. We were all different and we were all learning from each other.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Islamic credit cards Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Islamic credit cards - Essay Example Worthington has defined these cards as â€Å"Pay Later Cardsâ€Å", which facilitates the user to purchase any product or service without paying cash money. Fowler explains the credit cards as any coupon, single credit device, card or plate that can be used to get labor, services, goods or cash on credit. Such a card allows the user to make the required financial transaction without paying any money. The current technological development has given more powers to the buyer for purchasing goods and services on line. However, this requires an instrument that can facilitate payment to the seller at the time of such purchase. The credit card issued by a bank comes handy for this purpose as the buyer pays seller the required money through this card. Credit cards are secure as they replace cash which most of the people do not find safe to carry. In addition, carrying cash requires deep pockets and may create hassles. There are several reasons for the people to use credit cards. These include purchasing of foods and services, making necessary recharges, getting cash advances and enhancing the self-prestige. Credit cards have a long history as they have been in use since several decades. Their use started from United States in 1920s. Ritzer has named these cards as â€Å"American Icon†. During the early 20th century, credit cards were used for the first time in oil, automobile companies and general stores. Many writers have given credit to John Beggins of Flatbush National Bank in New York for inventing the first bank-issued credit card. The Banking Review’s Paper, FDIG informs that the idea of providing cash through a card goes back to 1800s era. However, the use of a bank issued credit card at different merchant outlets started only after 1950s. Bank Americard issued first VISA card in mid 1970s, while created the reputed credit card operation, called â€Å"VISA†. The scope of credit card use has widened now largely as

Sunday, September 22, 2019

An investigation into the use of science by one environmental advocacy Assignment

An investigation into the use of science by one environmental advocacy body in relation to environmental issues - Assignment Example The memorandum also concerns about how to guide the human beings for understanding the responsibility to prevent the world from the dangerous interferences of the environment change. Though every government of the industrialised nations had agreed to take adequate measures by setting specific targets as well as timetables for the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission along with other greenhouse gases but such initiatives have not resulted in any concrete outcomes as the entire world is witnessing an escalation of varied critical environmental concerns day-by-day (Hohnen, n.d.). Therefore, with regard to this booming issue, Greenpeace, a non-profit organisation has devoted its activities in order to improve as well as preserve the ecology of the planet as well as environment (Greenpeace, 2013). The objective of the report is to measure the contribution to debate on climate change by Greenpeace and to critically assess the connection between its values and interests, its advocacy positi ons and its use of science. Contribution of Greenpeace to Debate on Climate Change Greenpeace is a globally recognised non-profit organisation that executes passive actions to reduce the prevalent threats to environment. Greenpeace aims to shield as well as conserve the environment through promoting peace by revealing, investigating as well as confronting ecological abuses. The organisation has driven its initiatives by holding a lot of conferences challenging the political as well as trade along with industry powers that are being involved in performing certain detrimental activities for the environment. Greenpeace is the voice of millions of followers worldwide who are environmentally as well as socially responsible for the current as well as future generation. In addition, for inspiring the whole world regarding the concern about environmental cleanliness, the organisation has highlighted various issues through media releases, meetings, by organising petitions as well as through its websites among others. In 1992, after the contractual signature of the FCCC, the head of Greenpeace science team named Dr. Leggett wrote a book on the causes as well as consequences of the climate change. Along with it, Dr. Leggett also conducted meetings with numerous industrialists for sharing the assessment of climate science as well as its implications. In this context, Greenpeace acquires massive affirmative responses from insurance industry for starting the scientific reinforcement through evaluating the risk to the future world. In terms of involvement, the organisation continuously raises its voice against Canada for protecting the Arctic from oil spills. The oil companies always endeavour to demonstrate political power and impulsively pollute water as well as air that are threatening people’s conventional way of existence. Besides, Greenpeace also makes constructive approaches in order to reduce the scientific chemical hazards that fatally harm the ecology of the world. Standing on this solemn situation of the globe, the organisation has promoted a lot of pertinent policies for eliminating the bane of such critical

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Little Drummer Kid Essay Example for Free

Little Drummer Kid Essay Back when I was a child I never asked for much. I never had much of an interest in toys and spent most of my time alone. Even at the age of 8 I was a deep thinker, always questioning why things happen the way they do. I was constantly observing the world around me as if I was on the outside. I learned to appreciate silence at such a young age and didn’t speak much. I only spoke when I was spoken to, and even then I’d give a short response. I felt like I had so much to say but never found the right way to say it. I never found my voice until my eighth birthday when I had received a present that would forever change my life and give me a voice. My parents knew that I had a deep interest in music, heavy metal in particular, and would often catch me outside pretending to play drums with small twigs as drumsticks and various sized rocks for drums. My stepfather was a singer and he played in bands all the time so I was used to seeing musical instruments and recording equipment throughout the house. I used to tell my mom that I wanted to be a talented drummer someday so I could be in a band with my stepfather. For about three months my mom kept hinting that if I was good, went to school, and made sure I was always cleaning up after myself that I would get a special present on my birthday. So along comes my birthday and we pull up to my grandmother’s house, which is where all my birthday parties were, and I can see all the Halloween decorations that she had made herself. My birthday is on October 28th so we always had Halloween parties for my birthday. My whole family would dress up in whatever they want, my grandmother would decorate the living room and kitchen with various creepy Halloween Jack o lanterns, fake spiders hanging from the ceiling which was made to look like a giant spider web, and the infamous electronic bat that she would hang on the ceiling fan so it looked like it was flying around in circles. The bat would often fly off the fan and hit someone in the head or get in someone’s food. It was something that everybody would be afraid to admit they actually enjoy. Even though it’s dangerous, everyone would burst  out laughing and start talking about how they knew it would happen eventually. I don’t remember too much about the actual party and I really can’t recall what presents I had gotten from other family members. All that was on my mind was what my mom had said 3 months prior. I made sure I was doing well in school, made my bed every morning and washed my dishes after I would eat. I was trying my best to be a good boy so I could get that â€Å"special present† that my mom had told me about. The party was slowing down and everyone was leaving so I got to say goodbye to everyone but I was pretty upset and let down. I got many gifts but none were what I actually wanted: a drum set. My parents and I were getting ready to leave and my excitement from the day had quickly faded. I just sulked around for the last few minutes while my mom packed up all my stuff and said goodbye to my grandmother. My mom looked at me while we were walking to the car and said, â€Å"Joey, don’t look so sad. There’s one more gift waiting for you at home. It w as too big to bring to your grandmas.† She had a big smile on her face and in that moment I knew exactly what she was talking about. Upon arriving at home I ran out of the car, up the stairs, and waited impatiently for my parents to hurry up and unlock the front door. They yelled to me, â€Å"Don’t you want your gifts out of the trunk before we go inside?† I truly didn’t care about those other gifts, so I just stood where I was and waited, bouncing up and down with a huge grin on my face. My mom came and unlocked the door quickly because she knew what I was waiting for. As soon as we went inside I ran off like a little maniac, running through the entire house, looking for a drum set. My mother seemed to be in shock. Normally I was a quiet and composed kid, but here I was running around, screaming, and she didn’t know what to do. As I ran by her for about the fifth time, she grabbed my arm and told me to relax and she would show me my present. She said it was in the basement but she wanted me to walk slowly with her so I didn’t fall down the stairs. We went down and at the bottom was this big thing covered with a giant sheet. I knew I had gotten what I’ve been wanting: A drum set. When I had first looked at it I was in complete amazement. This wasn’t a child sized drum set, which I’ve seen in music magazines. I was already big for my age so my parents didn’t want to buy something for me that I would grow out of quickly. So they decided to buy me a $2500 7-piece Pearl drum set. It was huge! My entire body at the time could have fit inside the floor  toms and the bass drums. I fell in love with it as soon as I saw it. It was painted all white and the drumheads were clear so I could see the inside of each drum. I remember staring in amazement just looking at the wood on the inside wondering how they get it to bend so perfectly into the shape of a circle. The first few moments looking at the drums are the fondest memories I have of my childhood. The way the light gleamed off of the shiny gold cymbals was mesmerizing and the smell of the wood was so strong that it had imagined the entire drum set being cut from trees and put together all in my basement just for me. A feeling of stillness and calm washed over me like a tide. For the first time in my life, even at that young age, I had felt fully at peace. It’s almost indescribable how intense this experience was. Before I had even picked up the drumsticks, I knew I had found my calling. It was late in the night and I understood that I wouldn’t be able to play right then and there, but I knew that I was going to start playing bright and early the next morning. That night I had sat up in my room and listened to almost every cd I had, trying to pay attention to the drum parts that I wanted to try and play. Before I knew it, the sun was up and I was ready to play drums for the first time. I decided to wait until my mom woke up before I would startle her out of bed with the loud crashing of cymbals. As soon as she woke up and came out of her room, she saw me sitting quietly at the kitchen table. She knew what I was waiting for and simple said, â€Å"Go ahead.† I had ran down the stairs so quickly that I think my feet only touched 2 steps. I finally picked up the drumsticks and sat down behind the entire drum set and looked out to the objects in the room like random boxes, chairs, and stuff that was down there for storage and pretended that they were all people and I was a rock star playing in front of a huge crowd. I didn’t waste any time and stated swinging the sticks. I had finally found my voice: through music. I seemed to have a natural talent and playing what I felt was easy for me from then on. I played my emotions and spoke my mind through that drum set. It made me feel so much more significant in the world. Playing drums is the most empowering thing I’ve ever found in my life. To this day I still play drums. I’ve been in about a dozen local bands and have played around 100 shows in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Though I currently do not play in bands, I still love playing for myself. It’s the most therapeutic thing for me. It channels all of my sadness,  anger, joy, and empathy into a form of art. It’s a healthy outlet for me especially with so many stressors in my life. I need drums in my life to help me deal with certain struggles. Even at my darkest times, my drums and all of my music have been right there with me and help me persevere through any obstacle that comes my way. I’m a drummer and that’s all I ever wanted. Even if I am never famous, I’m still content with everything I continue to create for myself.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Indirect Realism: A Plausible Theory Of Perception?

Indirect Realism: A Plausible Theory Of Perception? In this essay I am going to be examining some of the main claims made by indirect realism as well as looking at some of the fundamental problems these claims cause for the theory, such as the epistemological problem, the ontological problem, and the fact that the theory inevitably leads to solipsism. Indirect realism first arose in an attempt to resolve some of the problems faced by common sense realism, where it became apparent that the assumption that our senses almost always give us true information about the nature of the external world is implausible. Indirect realism therefore modifies the ideas presented by common sense realism, by suggesting that what we perceive directly and are immediately aware of is not the world or the objects within it, but sense data. Indirect realists are far from denying the existence of the physical world, but simply claim that the physical objects in the world cause our sense data, and that the sense data we experience represents the external world, to an extent. For example, when I see a horse, I do not perceive it directly, as common sense realism would suggest. I have no sensory contact with the horse, and what I am aware of is only a mental representation, sort of like an inner picture, of the horse. My visual experience is not directly of the horse; however indirect realism claims that it is caused by the horse. What I am aware of is the representation of the horse, which my senses produce. As Dancy explains, Indirect Realism argues that in perception people are indirectly aware of the physical worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦in virtue of a direct awareness of internal, non physical objects.  [1]  This means that although someones idea of an object may resemble the object itself, a person can only ever be aware of their idea and never the object itself. Indirect realism also seems to provide a response to the objections to common sense realism, raised but the Illusion Argument. In the instance of colour, for example, one jacket can look completely different colours when viewed in different lights. If we were to then examine the fibres of the jacket material in more detail, we would probably find them to be a variety of different colours. The way it is perceived also depends on the viewer, for example, someone who is colour-blind may see the jacket differently to someone with full colour vision. In view of this, it doesnt seem to make sense to say that the jacket is really yellow, or that its yellowness is independent of the perceiver. In an attempt to explain this kind of phenomenon, indirect realism introduces the notion of primary and secondary qualities. Primary properties resemble the real properties of the object. John Locke, describes them as being utterly inseparable from the body  [2]  and necessary for conception of it. Primary qualities exist both in the world and in sense experiences, and can be experienced by more than one sense. They are measured by physics and are qualities which the object actually has, regardless of the conditions in which it is being perceived or whether it is being perceived at all. Primary qualities include shape, size, position solidity, extension, motion and rest, and number. Locke argues that secondary qualities are nothing in the objects themselves but powers to produce various sensations in us,  [3]  and conceptually inessential. These qualities exist only in sense experiences and can only be experienced by one sense, but objects in the physical world have the power to produce these experiences in us. It may seem as though these properties are really in the objects we perceive, for example, that the yellowness is somehow part of the yellow jacket, however the yellowness that we experience is simply the objects power to produce yellow images in a normal viewer, under normal conditions. The ideas we have of secondary qualities dont resemble the actual objects but are simply a product of the kind of sensory system that we have. Secondary properties include colour, temperature, smell, taste and sound. One major objection to indirect realism is that it seems to make the real world unknowable. It only makes sense for us to say that A resembles B, if it is possible for us to be directly aware of both A and B, in order for us to compare the two. This creates a rather fundamental epistemological problem for indirect realism because the theory states that our sense experiences of the primary qualities of objects resemble the actual qualities of objects in the external world, however, it also states that we can never be directly aware of the external world, so we therefore have no way of checking whether our sense experiences do in fact resemble the external world at all. For example, if my sense experience of a ball is round, I have no way to check that this corresponds with the actual shape of the ball in the external world. We are entirely limited to the evidence of our senses, and since these work by means of mental representations, it seems as though we can never gain any direct inf ormation about the actual properties of the ball, or any other object in the external world. Indirect realism has also led to a problem related to what is known as the veil of perception, which refers to things that are seen indirectly, and not as they are in themselves. This is because there is a veil that we cannot penetrate, because the things that are being perceived (in this case, objects in the external world) exist independent of sensation. This creates a rather fundamental ontological problem for indirect realism, because it only seems to make sense to say that A is caused by B if it is possible for us to know what B is, however the veil of perception seems to prevent us from doing this. Since we are unable to directly access any physical objects in the external world, it is possible that our sense experience could be caused by something entirely different, for example, Descartes evil demon, God, a mad scientist, the matrix, or ourselves. We have no way of getting outside of our own perception to find out what is causing our sense experiences, if there is in fact anything causing them at all. This is another serious problem for indirect realism; it can lead to solipsism, which is the belief that nothing exists beyond oneself and ones immediate experiences. It suggests that since we cannot know the external world and other minds directly, they may well not exist at all. Solipsism is argued to be philosophically absurd for two reasons; the first being the phenomenological reason, which claims that if we were the only beings that existed, we would not feel emotions such as shame, embarrassment and guilt, which require the existence of another person or being in order to have any effect. The second reason is that logically, solipsism just doesnt seem to make sense, and therefore any theory that leads to or allows for this view point, the way indirect realism does, is also argued to be absurd. In conclusion, it seems that although indirect realism does manage to overcome many of the problems faced by common sense realism, it also seems to create many more serious problems of its own. Although the theory at first seems quite plausible, the fact that it allows for solipsism makes it pretty much irredeemable. Indirect realism also fails to account for the causal relation between the external world and our sense experiences, and as we have seen through the veil of perception objection, we have no real reason to believe that our sense experience bare any resemblance to the external world at all. I think indirect realism would be much more plausible if it could offer some form of explanation of the interaction between our sense experiences and the external world. Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nano-material: Hydrothermal Synthesis Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Nano-material: Hydrothermal Synthesis Title: Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic application of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano-material for degradation of Reactive Blue H5R dye In the proposed research work Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano material will be synthesized using hydrothermal technique for the degradation of reactive blue H5R dye. The chlorides of manganese, iron and zinc will be used for the synthesis of the Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano material. Then synthesized material will be used in water treatment for the degradation of reactive blue H5R dye through photocatalysis using visible light. The examination of the size of the particles and structural properties of the synthesized material will be carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and the morphology of material will be evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle or grain size of prepared samples of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano material will be computed using the Scherer’s formula. The photo-catalytic behavior of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano material will be investigated by measuring the photo degradation rate of the dye. The stability of the nano-photo catalytic material will also be investi gated by the repeated use of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4. INTRODUCTION Synthetic dyes and different chemicals used in textile industries play significant role in environmental pollution. Some of these industrial chemicals and synthetic dyes decompose aerobically and anaerobically resulting in the formation of carcinogenic compounds (Neill et al., 1999). In the past few decades, there has been huge attention between scientists in increasing semiconductor photo-catalysts with great prospective for environmental protection applications like water disinfection (Ullah et al., 2012; Shahid et al., 2013). Most of the ferrite materials are known to show exciting photocatalytic capabilities for hydrogen or oxygen generation from water upon irradiation with visible light. Such visible light absorption properties, and their proper band edge positions with respect to redox levels essential for water splitting, are desirable for a water splitting photocatalyst to work under sunlight (Dom et al., 2014). Ferrite materials technology has now extended to a very progressive stage, in which the properties to a large extent are designed and controlled by engineers, to garb the particular function of the device. Because of their outstanding magneto-transport properties the mixed valence ferrites have involved huge scientific attention in the recent years (Ahmed and Bishay 2005). In the beginning works the ferrites were attained by soft chemistry and mechano-synthesis (Millotet al., 2007). Hydrothermal strategy is a promising synthetic method because of the low process temperature and very easy to manage the particle size. The hydrothermal procedure has several benefits over other growth methods such as the use of simple devices, catalyst-free growth, low cost, large area uniform production, environmental friendliness and less harmful (Aneesh et al., 2007). Moreover, no post-heat behavior is needed for the created nanoparticles, which makes this method extremely suitable as heat treatment might result in particle collection. (Haw et al., 2002) OBJECTIVE The objective of present research work is to produce Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano-sized particles by hydrothermal technique specifically for catalysis of reactive blue H5R dye. The structural properties of synthesized nano-photocatalyst will be studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Photo-catalytic behavior of the Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles will be investigated by determining the photo degradation rate of the reactive blue H5R dye under visible light irradiation. Review of Literature Rath et al. (1999) synthesized Mn0.65Zn0.35Fe2O4 particles in nanosize (9–12nm) using metal chlorides via hydrothermal precipitation. The characterization was done with TEM, XRD, and VSM. The concentration of chloride ion and pH of precipitate played a vital role in retaining the preliminary stoichiometry of the solution of the nano-material. Whereas at low pH, incomplete precipitation of Mn was observed. Zn loss in the nano-particles at higher pH of precipitation was noted. Bujoreanu et al. (2000) investigated the structure of manganese ferrite in powder form which was prepared by co-precipitation method using MnO2 and FeSO4.7H2O. The powder material then was co-precipitated and aged at temperatures ranging from 55 to 59 oC, then washed and dried in the air at room temperature. By the addition 15% sodium hydroxide solution in the 2N cation solution the stoichiometric amounts of MnO2, FeSO4.7H2O and H2SO4 were precipitated Kosak et al. (2004) prepared nanocrystalline MnZn-ferrite with different morphology through single water-in-oil micro-emulsion comprising of n-hexanol, surfactant CTAB and an mixed metal sulfates solution. The mixture was precipitate with sodium hydroxide solution and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. The prepared nano materials were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface analyzer, magnetometry and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Abdollahi et al. (2004) synthesized various compositions of manganese Mn doped ZnO. using precipitation method. XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, BET techniques were used for characterization. The band gap measurement was done with UV-visible reflectance. XRD pattern showed no impurity peaks, indicating Mn-related secondary phases. The EDX showed the slightly lower amount of Mn doped on ZnO than the theoretical value and SEM showed that 1% Mn-doped ZnO well ordered morphology, homogeneous distribution of slightly lower particle size and low aggregation. Vaidyanathan et al. (2004) compared Mn0.9Zn0.1Fe2O4 synhesized through double sintering method and chemical co precipitation method in order to find the magnetic properties. The precipitated ferrites showed altered magnetic properties like magnetization (Ms), coercive field (Hc) and Curie temperature (Tc). The particles were reduced in size as compared to co-precipitated nano-sized particles. Arulmurugan et al. (2006) prepared by Mn1−xZnxFe2O4 used for ferro-fluid preparation.TG-DTA, XRD, TEM, VSM and Mossbauer spectroscopy was used for description. The ultimate approximated cation contents decided with the initial degree of substitution. The particle size and curie temperature (Tc) reduced with the rise in zinc substitution. The particles with greater zinc concentration, showed ferrimagnetic and super paramagnetic behavior at room temperature. Yimin et al. (2007) synthesized Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 using metal sulfate in aqueous ammonia. The TEM, XRPD, VSM and TGA were appled to demonstrate the material properties. The classification of the nanoparticles was evaluated and discussed. The effects of the reacting components and preparation methods on the Curie temperature, the magnetization and the size distribution of Mn Zn ferrite nanoparticles. Hejase et al. (2012) produced hyperthermia inducing agents manganese zinc iron magnetic nanoparticles. The structure was recongnized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and a superconducting quantum interference device. The curie temperature, saturation magnetization, remnant magnetization, coercive field, and hysteresis were analyzed which showed that adapting the Mn contributed to the modification of properties of the magnetic complex. Shahid et al. (2013) synthesized high effective ZrFe2O5 nanoparticles using co-precipitation method. By (EDX) the chemical composition of nano-materials were analyzed. (FE-SEM) was used to study the morphology. The structural properties of the produced material were appraised by XRD technique. By evaluating the degradation rate of TBO dye in aqueous solution the photo-catalytic action of ZrFe2O5nano-particles was examined under visible light irradiation in the presence of ZrFe2O5nano-particles. By increasing time of exposure under visible light irradiation a steady decrease in absorption peak was noticed. As after 140 min of contact to visible light the 92% degradation effectiveness was detected. Besides, ZrFe2O5nano-photocatalyst could be recaptured and reprocessed purely. The rate of TOC elimination and TBO was decreased by only 10% and 5% respectively, afterward seven cycles of use, representing the more photo-stability of the synthesized nano-photo-catalyst material.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Overcoming Challenges in Channeary by Steve Tolbert :: essays research papers

In this novel by Steve Tolbert, we experience the life of a young girl by the name of Channeary. Channeary lives in a small fishing village in Cambodia. During her life, she faces many challenges, like the loss of her family to the ruthless Khmer Rouge soldiers. She overcomes many of the tragedies faced, but some still haunt her to this day. In this essay, I intend to explore several of those challenges, including how she overcame them. The first major obstacle faced in Channeary?s life was when the ruthless Khmer Rouge soldiers invaded their small fishing village. They had selected a few people from the village to come forcefully with them. You, as Angkar?s Ancient People you will fully co-operate in battle to rid our land of reactionary capitalist filth and their imperialist supporters!?(1) Knowing the Khmer Rouge, they probably were killed. Later, they cleaned their village in silence. After cleaning, the villagers gathered around the Buddha figure and prayed. At this time, Channeary would have felt very scared that the soldiers might take her away, there was a feeling of discomfort and uncertainty in the mind of Channeary at that point in time. From the fear of the Khmer Rouge invading the village again, some residences were forced to leave for bordering Thailand. ?We must leave tonight...possibly to Thailand? Channeary?s mother said.(2) Most fled only for the welfare of their children. Channeary would have ex perienced great sadness when leaving her home that was full of her childhood memories with her family. With the help of Mith constantly encouraging them, the villagers continuously pushed themselves. Many characters had began to get weak and weary resulting, to the lose lives. Overcoming Challenges in Channeary by Steve Tolbert :: essays research papers In this novel by Steve Tolbert, we experience the life of a young girl by the name of Channeary. Channeary lives in a small fishing village in Cambodia. During her life, she faces many challenges, like the loss of her family to the ruthless Khmer Rouge soldiers. She overcomes many of the tragedies faced, but some still haunt her to this day. In this essay, I intend to explore several of those challenges, including how she overcame them. The first major obstacle faced in Channeary?s life was when the ruthless Khmer Rouge soldiers invaded their small fishing village. They had selected a few people from the village to come forcefully with them. You, as Angkar?s Ancient People you will fully co-operate in battle to rid our land of reactionary capitalist filth and their imperialist supporters!?(1) Knowing the Khmer Rouge, they probably were killed. Later, they cleaned their village in silence. After cleaning, the villagers gathered around the Buddha figure and prayed. At this time, Channeary would have felt very scared that the soldiers might take her away, there was a feeling of discomfort and uncertainty in the mind of Channeary at that point in time. From the fear of the Khmer Rouge invading the village again, some residences were forced to leave for bordering Thailand. ?We must leave tonight...possibly to Thailand? Channeary?s mother said.(2) Most fled only for the welfare of their children. Channeary would have ex perienced great sadness when leaving her home that was full of her childhood memories with her family. With the help of Mith constantly encouraging them, the villagers continuously pushed themselves. Many characters had began to get weak and weary resulting, to the lose lives.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Russian History Essay -- Vladimir Lenin, Peter the Great

The Soviet Union has had numerous leaders throughout it’s existence as a country. However, there are a few leaders that will forever be in Russian history books and lectures. Among those leaders who have had the largest influence on the Soviet Union are; Vladimir Lenin, Peter the Great, Alexander Kerensky, and Joseph Stalin to name a few. While all of the leaders are interesting and have influence on Russia, this research paper will specifically focus on Joseph Stalin. Joseph Stalin lead the Soviet Union for over 20 years and he certainly had a unique way of doing so. While Stalin did contribute to turning Russia into a world superpower, he was a murderous dictator who is among many things, responsible for millions of innocent lives, genocides, and famines. While Stalin’s birthday is printed in different places as two different dates, Iosiph Vissarionovich Djugashvili was born on December 21, 1879 in Gori, Georgia (Montefiore 2004). Stalin was born to â€Å"illiterate peasant parents†, Vissarion and Ekaterina, and his father is said to be the cause of his ruthless soul. According to the Jewish Library, he was undeservingly beaten by his father and this was reason for him to have revengeful feelings towards everyone who had power over him (Jewish Virtual Library 2011). He eventually would chang his name to Joseph Stalin, which means â€Å"Man of Steel†. Some sources say that Lenin is referenced in his name change (stal + Lenin = Stalin) (Jewish Virtual Library 2011). When Stalin was just seven years old his face was permanently scared after he acquired a case of smallpox. Iosiph attended church school when he was young and would also do so later under the preference of his mother (Radzinsky 1996). Stalin was involved in two ac... ... of tyrant reign, millions of innocent Soviet people were enduring murders, false imprisonments, famines, brainwashing, and terror. They feared constantly that they be subjected to unjustified arrest or execution. They feared for the lives of their friends and family and also for the future of their children and the future of Russia. Stalin died on March 19, 1962 in Kazan where he was banished to. It is thought that he had help, like his father, in dying. I’m sure that the Soviet people breathed a sigh of relief, they no longer had to live in such an intense fear and anxiety. However terrible he was many Russians still believed him to be a great leader. Stalin was a murderous dictator who is among many things, responsible for millions of innocent lives, genocides, and famines however, Russia has Stalin to thank for turning the country into a world superpower.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Con law essay

Introduction The Lincoln High School seal designed by the School Seal Committee does not violate the Establishment Clause nor does it violate Leslie Fosters or anyone else's right to Freedom of Religion granted by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The First Amendment contains the Establishment Clause which states that the government shall make no law â€Å"Respecting an establishment of religion†. In other words the government shall not endorse religion and it shall not give preference to one religion over another but it does not prohibit the government's entry into religious domain to make accommodations.In this case the way to determine if the governments actions have endorsed religion it is required to apply the Lemon Test, created by the United States and obtained from Lemon v. Kurtzman. The Lemon Test is used to determine whether or not a display violates the First Amendment by endorsing religion. The first prong of the Lemon Test articulates that the government's actions must have a secular purpose. The second prong affirms that the government's action must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion.Last but not least, the third prong expresses that the governments action must not esult in an â€Å"excessive entanglement† alongside religion. To determine if the Lincoln High School seal is constitutional it must pass all three parts of the Lemon Test Theretore, since the Lincoln High Seal does pass all three parts ot the Lemon Test it is proven that the seal does not violate the establishment clause nor does it violate Leslie Fosters right to Freedom of Religion. Secular Purpose A.Stated Purpose The Lincoln High School seal passed the first prong of the Lemon Test because it has a secular purpose. Although the seal contains religious symbols they are considered secular because the urpose of them being there is to express the diversity among the students that attend Lincoln High to overall repre sent the school itself. For example, according to Lynch v. Donnelly the inclusion of a nativity scene in a city display did not infringe the Establishment Clause because the stated purpose was sincere and it was not a sham.The nativity scene was placed there to show the citys historical background. In Lincoln High School at the beginning of designing the seal the members of the school seal committee were instructed to design and create a seal that represented Lincoln High and its students. The students had many arguments and disputes on how to represent the students because each one of them had different ideas. They did discuss other ways to represent the students but they all agreed that the best way to display the diversity of the students was by the inclusion of the religious symbols.Since the Lincoln High Muslim Societys office had been vandalized by Christian and Jewish students they suggested to add religious symbols hoping to demonstrate the tolerance and respect they felt to ward the views of all the members of the Lincoln High community. The purpose, like in Lynch, was sincere and it was not a sham because they were actually aiming to represent the three most common religions in the school with the purpose to represent the students diversity not the religions the way that the government in Lynch was trying to represent the citys historical background through the nativity scene.Also, In Books v. Elkhart a monument inscribed with the Ten Commandments stood in front of the city of Elkhart's Municipal Building. Forty years after the monuments erection residents of Elkhart County, filed suit against the city alleging that he monument's presence violated the Establishment Clause. The court ruled the monument inscribed with the Ten Commandments to be secular because of its location, outside the Municipal Building, which houses the local courts and local prosecutor's office. This location emphasizes the foundational role of the Ten Commandments in secular, leg al matters.The court stated that a carving of Moses holding the Ten Commandments, surrounded by representations of other historical legal figures, signals respect not for great proselytizers but for great lawgivers. The court found the monument to be ecular because it was surrounded by other legal givers which minimized the religious purpose the monument of the Ten Commandments displayed to the community According to Books the court should look at the totality location of the circumstances to determine the actual purpose of the display.Like in Books, you can determine the actual purpose of the Lincoln High seal by looking at the totality of the circumstances. The religious symbols in the seal portray the role religions have amongst the students in the school in a secular way. Since the religious symbols in the seal are surrounded by other ecular symbols you can infer that the over all purpose is to represent the school not the religious symbols themselves. You can also determine tha t its meant to represent the school and its students because of its surroundings similar to how the Ten Commandments in Books represents a figure of a historical law giver not a proselytizer.The religious aspect in both cases have been proven to have a secular purpose because of their historical backgrounds and the circumstances in which they are present. B. Written Purpose It can also be determined that the Lincoln High School seal is secular by onsidering the leaflet that accompanied the seal. In the leaflet the members of the school committee wrote that the Lincoln High School seal is intended to represent the school, its population, Lincoln Center City and the state of Fordham.They wrote this to explain to the community that would see the seal during its inauguration what the symbols represented. In Adland v. Russ a monument inscribed with the Ten Commandments located on capitol grounds near Kentuckys floral clock lacked any secular purpose because it was unaccompanied by any ot her document. Therefore because of the Ten ommandments distinctly religious nature the pre- eminent purpose for the posting of the Ten Commandments is plainly religious. According to Adland v.Russ, an effective disclaimer can further strengthen the secular purpose of a public display. Unlike Adland the Lincoln High School Seal was accompanied with a leaflet that specifically stated the purpose of the symbols that were included in the seal which overall served to support the claim that the seal had a secular purpose. Effect 1 . Religious symbols The primary effect of the Lincoln high seal did not promote any religion over another because they used the three eligions that were abundant amongst the students.The members of the seal committee did acknowledge the fact that their were other religions practiced by the students who attended the schools and that their were other ways to represent diversity but they chose religion and specifically these three because their was a lot of tension going on between them. They contacted one of the members in the committee's father to ask about the religious symbols that corresponded witn the religions. The members dad happened to be a pastor which benefited them to achieve the information they needed to represent the diversity among he students, not necessarily the religion.The students hoped that by representing all the students as a whole through these religious symbols and the secular symbols the tension would diminish and the vandalizing of the Lincoln High Muslims Societys office would be behind them. The religious symbols that were included in the seal are that Latin Cross, Star of David, and a crescent moon and star. There are religious symbols in the seal but they only take up one third of the seal and they don't advance the religion they exhibit the diversity of the students through religion.The secular symbols integrated in the eal is the school name, school mascot, and a picture of the school. The outline of Fordham and the state flower and bird have been included to represent Lincoln Center City. The description of these symbols is also included in the leaflet accompanying the seal. Two- thirds of the seal is made up of secular symbols while only one third of the seal is made up of religious symbols. The inclusion of these secular symbols minimize the effect that the religious symbols have on the seal simply because their are more secular symbols than religious symbols.In Allegheny v. Aclu a cr ©che donated to the ity by a Roman Catholic group was placed on the staircase of the County Courthouse, the countys seat of government. With a banner it that said † Glory to in the highes t†. The Court reasoned cr ©che stood alone and contained an unmistakable religious message. Unlike Allegheny the religious symbols in the Lincoln High seal do not stand alone, they are surrounded by other secular symbols which gives off a secular message instead of a religious one.The secular symbols d elude the significance of the religious symbols because it shows that not only the religious symbols represent the school and its students. Therefore, all the symbols are of equal importance. Also in Allegheny another display outside another government building included a menorah and Christmas tree. On the other hand that court held that the menorah and Christmas tree had a secular purpose therefore they did not violate the Establishment Clause.The court noted that the display was not constitutional simply because it included two religions. Rather, it was constitutional because it celebrated the two holidays using what the Court viewed as secular symbols. This made the display, in the Court's view a recognition of the wo holidays, rather than an endorsement of them. Like in the Lincoln high seal the religious symbols are not secular simply because it includes the three religious symbols, but because it represented the schools students and their diversity like it was stated in the le aflet.The religious symbols in The Lincoln High seal, like in Allegheny are viewed as a recognition of the religions in the school rather than an endorsement ot them. According to Allgneny , cou rts nave never required that displays with religious symbols contain a symbol of every religion to be constitutional. In other words a display that contains a religious symbol doesn't not need to have a symbol on every religion in order to be constitutional and not violate the Establishment Clause. The Lincoln High School seal does not need to have a symbol of every religion in order to be consititutional.It is obvious that their are more religions practiced in the school other than the ones provided in the school but it also needs to be recognized that those three religions are the ones that are mostly practiced among the students. The religious symbols don't make the secular symbols religious but the secular ymbols do make the religious symbols secular because it emphasizes what the religi ous symbols are actually representing which is the students and their diversity in the school. In Friedman v.Bernalillo, The case challenges a county government's use of a seal bearing, among other things, a Latin cross and the Spanish motto, â€Å"CON ESTA VENCEMOS,†. While the cross is the primary symbol of Christianity, the Establishment Clause does not prohibit all references to objects of some religious significance. The district court found that a secular legislative urpose is served by the county seal because it is used to promote the appreciation of the heritage, history and cultural pride of Bernalillo County.In the Lincoln High School seal the religious symbols in are used to promote the diversity among the students and represent the school. All in all botn cases the displays nave been rul ed to nave a secular effect even though they contained distinctively religious symbols because like in Lincoln High the seals distinctive religious symbols don't endorse religion because of their purpose. 2. Secular Symbols The secular symbols in the Lincoln High School seal diminish the ffect that the religious symbols portray. In Kuhn v.City of Rolling Meadow she seal contained a church, which was considered a religious symbols. It surrounding secular symbols was a house, a family and trees. It also had city of Rolling Meadows and State of Illinois around the seal. The seal was considered constitutional because of the overall effect was not to endorse religion. The church was more than Just a religious symbol it was a historical symbol as well because of its historical background. Also the secular symbols surrounding it made it obvious so distinguish the fact that the hurch was included to emphasize the citys heritage and culture.The religious symbols in the seal weren't anymore prominent than the secular symbols which reveal that they are all of equal importance. Like in The Lincoln High School seal the three religious symbols also don't endorse religion because its surrounding symbols are secular which reduce the religious meaning that the religious symbols have and make all the seals of equal importance. Like in Kuhn the religious symbols in the Lincoln High seal are not more prominent than the secular symbols in the seal and they don't ave anything special to them that distinguish their importance from the other seal.With the inclusion of the secular symbols the religious symbols in the Lincoln High seal do not have an overall effect of endorsing religion. Rather, its overall effect is to represent the diversity in the school. In FFRF v. City of Wyoming the seal contains a house a golf course, a house, a building and a chapel. In this case it was also determined that the seal is constitutional because of its secular symbols. The golf course, building, and house all represent the City of Wyoming, Michigan.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Random Sampling Techniques

There are many ways to select a random sample. Four of them are discussed below: Simple Random Sampling: In this sampling technique, each sample of the same size has the same probability of being selected. Such a sample is called a simple random sample. One way to select a simple random sample is by a lottery or drawing. For example, if we need to select 5 students from a class of 50, we write each of the 50 names on a separate piece of paper. Then, we place all 50 names in a hat and mix them thoroughly.Next, we draw 1 name randomly from the hat. We repeat this experiment four more times. The 5 drawn names make up a simple random sample. The second procedure to select a simple random sample is to use a table of random numbers, which has become an outdated procedure. In this age of technology, it is much easier to use a statistical package, such as Minitab, to select a simple random sample. Systematic Random Sampling: The simple random sampling procedure becomes very tedious if the si ze of the population is large.For example, if we need to select 150 households from a list of 45,000, it is very time consuming either to write the 45,000 names on pieces of paper or then select 150 households or to use a table of random numbers. In such cases, it is more convenient to use systematic random sampling. Stratified Random Sampling: Suppose we need to select a sample from the population of a city, and we want households with different income levels to be proportionately represented in the sample.In this case, instead of selecting a simple random sample or a systematic random sample, we may prefer to apply a different technique. First, we divide the whole population into different groups based on income levels. Thus, whenever we observe that a population differs widely in the possession of a characteristic, we may prefer to divide it into different strata and then select one sample from each stratum. We can divide the population on the basis of any characteristic, such as income, expenditure, sex, education, race, employment, or family size.Cluster Sampling: Sometimes the target population is scattered over a wide geographical area. Consequently, if a simple random sample is selected, it may be costly to contact each member of the sample. In such a case, we divide the population into different geographical groups or clusters and as a first step select a random sample of certain clusters from all clusters. We then take a random sample of certain elements from each selected cluster. For example, suppose we are to conduct a survey of households in the state f New York. First, we divide the whole state of New York into, say, 40 regions, which are called clusters or primary units. We make sure that all clusters are similar and, hence, representative of the population. We then select at random, say, 5 clusters from 40. Next, we randomly select certain households from each of these 5 clusters and conduct a survey of these selected households. This is calle d cluster sampling. Note that all clusters must be representative of the population. Random Sampling Techniques There are many ways to select a random sample. Four of them are discussed below: Simple Random Sampling: In this sampling technique, each sample of the same size has the same probability of being selected. Such a sample is called a simple random sample. One way to select a simple random sample is by a lottery or drawing. For example, if we need to select 5 students from a class of 50, we write each of the 50 names on a separate piece of paper. Then, we place all 50 names in a hat and mix them thoroughly.Next, we draw 1 name randomly from the hat. We repeat this experiment four more times. The 5 drawn names make up a simple random sample. The second procedure to select a simple random sample is to use a table of random numbers, which has become an outdated procedure. In this age of technology, it is much easier to use a statistical package, such as Minitab, to select a simple random sample. Systematic Random Sampling: The simple random sampling procedure becomes very tedious if the si ze of the population is large.For example, if we need to select 150 households from a list of 45,000, it is very time consuming either to write the 45,000 names on pieces of paper or then select 150 households or to use a table of random numbers. In such cases, it is more convenient to use systematic random sampling. Stratified Random Sampling: Suppose we need to select a sample from the population of a city, and we want households with different income levels to be proportionately represented in the sample.In this case, instead of selecting a simple random sample or a systematic random sample, we may prefer to apply a different technique. First, we divide the whole population into different groups based on income levels. Thus, whenever we observe that a population differs widely in the possession of a characteristic, we may prefer to divide it into different strata and then select one sample from each stratum. We can divide the population on the basis of any characteristic, such as income, expenditure, sex, education, race, employment, or family size.Cluster Sampling: Sometimes the target population is scattered over a wide geographical area. Consequently, if a simple random sample is selected, it may be costly to contact each member of the sample. In such a case, we divide the population into different geographical groups or clusters and as a first step select a random sample of certain clusters from all clusters. We then take a random sample of certain elements from each selected cluster. For example, suppose we are to conduct a survey of households in the state f New York. First, we divide the whole state of New York into, say, 40 regions, which are called clusters or primary units. We make sure that all clusters are similar and, hence, representative of the population. We then select at random, say, 5 clusters from 40. Next, we randomly select certain households from each of these 5 clusters and conduct a survey of these selected households. This is calle d cluster sampling. Note that all clusters must be representative of the population.