Thursday, October 31, 2019

Health promotion lnterveton Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Health promotion lnterveton - Essay Example This intervention seeks to create awareness of the potential health risks posed by binge drinking, as well as the potential benefits of non-indulgence in binge drinking. The health promotion intervention took place at the London Metropolitan University through a PowerPoint presentation. Prior to the intervention, a selection of ten participants willing to participate in the health promotion intervention took place. A pre-assessment of the perceptions of the participants in binge drinking occurred before the intervention. After the intervention, each participant filled in a post-assessment questionnaire. Analysis and comparison of these assessments determined the outcome of the intervention. In the recent past, studies have revealed that there is an increased rate of binge drinking among undergraduate students. A close analysis of students’ perception on alcohol use highlights that they consider it a pleasurable activity. Binge drinking among university students has been soaring at alarming rates. A remarkable percentage of students specifically 92.4% fall into the category of binge drinkers. These statistics reveal that university students have adopted the British drinking culture. Despite previous efforts by the government to reduce binge drinking, it seems to be increasing in universities. Notably, as the number of university students increased, binge drinkers among the students increase. In 2002, over 60% of undergraduates indulged in binge drinking. In one of the Scottish Universities, a study conducted to establish the percentage of binge drinkers that involved 180 female students revealed that most of them indulged in binge drinking. However, such students did not categorize themselves as binge drinkers (Marks, & Maguire 2010, p. 654). The increasing rates of binge drinking among university students are the cause for concern considering the negative health effects associated

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Outline Proposal Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Outline - Research Proposal Example Gender conflicts have become one of the major consequences for several leading retail chain organizations within the industry. It is true that these multinational leading retail chain organizations have developed workplace diversity in the business operation process in order to ensure effective knowledge sharing within the workplaces. However, several organizations are trying to maintain gender equality in the workplaces in different global places in order to maintain strong relationship with the valuable internal and external stakeholders (Daft, 2010, p.21). Application of â€Å"Stakeholder Theory† sustainability theory can be implemented in the study with respect to the selected topic issues i.e. workplace gender conflicts in leading retail chain organizations. Gender conflicts can be considered as one of the serious CSR or SD issues that can hamper the social sustainability of an organization (Eifler and Seifert, 2009, p.269). It is true that the external stakeholders gener ally take interest in the business operation process and business performance of an organization if that organization successfully meets the developed corporate values, business ethics and social or communal demand (Sims, 2003, p.104). This research will majorly focus on the application of this theory to analyze the particular issues. Valuable related thoughts and views of different authors have been considered in this part of the research to meet the developed research objective. There are two types of research methods, such as qualitative and quantitative research methodology. Quantitative research methodology generally deals with the numerical data on the other hand qualitative research methodology generally deals with inner feelings, behaviour and response of the respondents towards asked questions based on the research objective (Kothari, 2004, p.21). Qualitative research methodology has been selected based on the exploratory nature of the study (Kuada, 2012, p.57). In

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Gene chlR in Streptomyces Venezuelae

Gene chlR in Streptomyces Venezuelae PCR amplification and overexpression of the positive regulatory gene chlR in Streptomyces venezuelae J. L. CLAYTON BROWN Introduction The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in the amplification of DNA which utilises thermal stable polymerase, Thermus aquaticus (Taq) and primers which aid in the annealing of the chosen DNA strand, producing numerous replications through a cycle of appropriate temperature changes (Lorenz, 2012).   Developed in 1983 by Dr. Kary Banks Mullis, PCRs ability to quantitate transcription levels of specific genes has revolutionised research and the understanding of gene function (Bustin, 2000) in its many applications, including the ability to: detect DNA polymorphs and point mutations (Orita et al., 1989), amplify specific genes for the construction of overexpression vectors (Liang et al., 2015), and recognising bacterial (Hill, 1996) and viral (Holodniy, 1994) pathogens. Advances within PCR have only broadened the spectrum of its implementations, with new techniques such as Quantative PCR, and Inverse PCR yielding new insights into once misunderstood areas of molecular b iology (Jain and Varadarajan, 2013). ChlR is a cluster-associated transcriptional activator consisting of 987 base pairs within the putative CHL biosynthetic operon, predicated to encode the only positive regulator responsible for the initiation of production of chloramphenicol (CHL) (Fernà ¡ndez-Martà ­nez, et al., 2014); with the usance of PCRs cloning capacity, it is predicted that the introduction of a plasmid capable of overexpression of the chlR gene will result in amplified activity of the CHL biosynthetic gene cluster. Method DNA amplification by means of PCR often requires a high fidelity taq polymerase within the PCR mixture to minimise mutations (McInerney et al., 2014). The chlR DNA fragment was inserted into the vector pIJ10257 [1] prior to PCR. The final reaction mixture consisted of the following: 10ÃŽ ¼l 5X Colorless GoTaq ® Reaction Buffer, 2ÃŽ ¼l PCR Nucleotide Mix (10mM each dNTP), 5ÃŽ ¼l Apra_BamHI_F primer, 5ÃŽ ¼l Apra_BamHI_R primer, 2ÃŽ ¼l purified chlR chromosomal DNA, 5ÃŽ ¼l Dimethyl sulfoxide (D MSO), 20ÃŽ ¼l Nuclease-Free water, and 1ÃŽ ¼l GoTaq ® G2 DNA Polymerase, equating to a total reaction volume of 50ÃŽ ¼l within a sterile, nuclease-free PCR tube, labelled as group 2. The appropriate annealing temperature was set accordingly with the melting temperature (Tm) of the hybridising portion of the primer. The extension temperature was calculated upon the approximation of 1 minute per every 1kb of required amplified DNA. The resulting thermal cycle was applied as such: an initial cycle at 95 °C for 5 min (denaturation), 95 °C for 30 secs (secondary denaturation), 56 °C for 30 secs (annealing), 72 °C for 90 secs (extension), repeated for 30 cycles from secondary denaturation. The final extension temperature was 72 °C for a period of 5 mins (holding temperature 10 °C). Gel electrophoresis (GE) was preformed using a 0.8% polysaccharide agarose gel within a Tris/Borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer and inserted into the 2nd column. Results Gels were removed from the gel box and inspected underneath a UV light. No band of DNA was visible within column 2; the molecular weight ladder and chromosomal DNA within columns 3, 13, and 16 from other accompanying PCR (run simultaneously under the same conditions previously described) were observable. When compared to the molecular ladder, successful DNA fragments indicated a base pair (bp) length of approximately 1000bp, in correlation with the 987bp of the chlR regulatory sequence, an indication that the inserted DNA is present. Fig.1   0.08% agarose gel exhibiting the DNA ladder and S. veneuzlae chromosomal DNA within column 3, 13, and 16. Column 3 shows an excessive quanity of DNA, an indication overproportionate amount of template DNA were added during procedure. The absence of DNA within column 2 (indiciated in red) evinces the failed PCR described in this paper. Discussion   Ã‚   The absence of DNA within column 2 demonstrated the failure to obtain a PCR product. As each component was correctly incorporated, other aspects must be adjusted to result in an adequate amount of DNA cloning. There are several alterations implementable to increase the likelihood of success within the reaction, firstly being the redesign of appropriate primers as the most crucial component for successful amplification of the reaction (Dieffenbach et al., 1993); analysis based software for enhancing the specificity of the primers without compromising their sensitivity can be implemented, with programs such as Primer3 and QuantPrime offering the possibilities of designing internal oligonucleotides alongside primer pairs, and the optimisation of these primer pair designs enabling specificity evaluation, respectively (Noguera et al., 2014). If the primers present correctly, changes to the temperature cycle should next be ensured. A decrease in the annealing temperature has previously shown to reduce the risk of unspecific binding and preferential amplification (Sipos et al., 2007). A final modification to the protocol is to adjust the number of PCR cycles, as this change can influence aspects of the reaction; a low PCR cycle number may provide accurate estimation of bacterial richness and a decrease of PCR errors (Ahn et al., 2012), whilst an increase in cycles can improve fluorescent intensity of some dyes (SYBR ® Green I) (Ramakers et al., 2003). Electroporation is a common method of transformation concerning plasmids, involving a brief high-voltage pulse which renders the membrane pores to transiently open and allow the subsequent uptake of DNA into the host cell (Pigac and Schrempf, 1995); an associated example is an electrotransformed Escherichia coli bacteriumwith a cloned, overexpressed chlR gene. In order to clarify correct insertion and amplification of the correct sequence, the DNA must be sequenced. The most common method of DNA sequencing for cloned PCR products is the Sanger sequence, which technique lies in the use of chain-terminating nucleotides (Sanger, et al., 1977). Once clarified, the replicative vector can then be transferred to S. venezuelae via coagulation from the E. coli, transferrable due to the origin of transfer (oriT) within the vector (Mazodier et al., 1989). It Is expected that an overexpression of the chlR gene would result in elevated levels of the encoded transcription factor protein, initiating increased transcription of the CHL biosynthetic cluster and producing a higher chloramphenicol yield; this would be observable through analysation via High Performance Liquid Chromatography, a sensitive method appropriate for gene expression analysis (Sivakumaran, et al., 2003).Recent research [2] has strongly indicated that the constitutive expression of chlR effects the overall expression of the speculated, proceeding genes within the cluster, confirming chlRs role as a transcriptional activator (Fernà ¡ndez-Martà ­nez et al., 2014).

Friday, October 25, 2019

Applications and Reflections in Gestalt Play Therapy: A Case Study Ess

Gestalt therapy is a type of therapy used to deepen our awareness of ourselves. According to O’Connor and Braverman, (2009) â€Å"Gestalt" implies wholeness. â€Å"Gestalt therapy is a process-oriented, experiential therapy that is concerned with the integrated functioning of all aspects of the person: senses, body, emotions and intellect.† Gestalt therapy can be described as process active, experiential work and can help shed light on suppressed feelings by helping us focus our awareness on feelings in the present. In working through negative the client can realize negative behavior patterns that may have become ingrained. Understanding the relationship between what we tell ourselves (bad gestalts) and negative thought processes and can become a part of the healing process. Through this form of therapeutic process, individuals can become better equipped to understand themselves and make better or healthier choices, creating a unity of mind, body and spirit. When Gestalt theory is applied to taking of responsibility for problematic life experiences, the experiential work lies in assisting the client in taking ownership, self-examination, then making choices and resolving difficulties. When theory is applied to a play therapy relationship, the therapist enters into a partnership with the child, in a process where goals focus on empowerment of the child. This process is described in Oaklander, (2011). â€Å"Anger is the most misunderstood of all the human emotions. We tend to think of anger as basically distasteful and abhorrent -- something that we would rather not experience.† Oaklander posits that anger is a direct and unique expression of self, and the basic attempt to defend an inner personal boundary. ... ....47-Other dysfunctions of sleep stages or arousal f from sleep. Retrieved from http://www.icd9data.com/2011/Volume1/290-3 19/300-316/307/307.47.htm Kalff, Dora. (2003) Sandplay: A Psychotherapeutic Approach to the Psyche. Temenos Press, Cloverdale, CA. Lowenfeld, M. (1991) Play in Childhood. MacKeith Press, London. Miller, A. (1975) Albert Einstein and Max Wertheimer: a Gestalt psychologist's view of the genesis of special relativity theory. History of science; an Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching 13 (2): 75–103. Oaklander, V. (1988) Windows to Our Children: A Gestalt Therapy Approach to Children and Adolescents. The Gestalt Journal Press; Gouldsboro, Maine. Oaklander, V. (2011) The many faces of Anger. The Violet Oaklander Foundation, Retrieved from the internet 11/2/2011, from http://www.vsof.org/links.html

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Gender Roles in Latin America Essay

With only 10 percent of people claiming themselves to be natives, Latin America is considered as one of the most diverse regions in the world. Due to this ethnic and racial diversity, tracing the roots of gender issues by associating with a single group or factor might not reveal the truth. However, some objective factors like lower pay scales for women and labour force participation provide considerable objectivity to reckon the area in terms of gender issues (De Ferranti 77&78). Chile represents a variant region of Latin America which has gone through multiple phases in terms of gender roles and position. The period of coup d’etat against President Salvador Allende in the country is also considered as a time of human rights era (Cleary 1). In this context, women faced dual exploitation – first as Chilean natives and then as suppressed part of the society. The military take over resulted in some of the most gruesome tortures against women thereby becoming a primary reason of insurrection in the later period. However, this insurrection was partly related to the exiles of thousands of women from Chile who during the time of exile actively participated in bringing a paradigm shift. Rapid Industrialization and economic development in 1940s at one hand opened vistas for Latin American women by proving job opportunities, but the same phenomenon also served to debilitate their status and power. According to Julio Ceasar Pino, the economic development led to entrance in professional field but with a limitation to enter the corporate level thereby making them considered as futile presence (1). The letters of Marjorie Agosin and Emma Sepulveda in 1960s provide a firsthand view of gender roles in Latin America during the concerned times. Coupled with stringent orthodoxy, the society portrayed in the letters is one that defines a fine line as to what was expected of women in the twentieth century. The chronicles portray that makeup was considered to besmirch the purity of women, their obligations coalesced with child birth and development, their duty to be in the kitchen to cook at parties even with servants were present and where in families men always won (1-14). Behind the shift from stark gender roles division to the acceptance of women in economy, politics and society, there lies a strong role of women movements emerging in the late twentieth century. Today, Latin American women have seats in governmental offices and have Ministries (De Ferranti 81). However, for the share of changing roles that women in Latin America enjoy today is due to a far greater oppression of the gender in past that has led to a slow, but ongoing process of amelioration. Works Cited Agosin, Marjorie, and Emma Sepulveda. Amigas : Letters of Friendship and Exile. US: Texas Press, 2001. Cleary, Edward L. The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated, 1997 De Ferranti, David M. , Guillermo E. , and Francisco Ferreira. Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean : Breaking with History? Washington, D. C: World Bank Publications, 2004 Pino, Julio Cesar. â€Å"Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History. † History Teacher 34. 3 (01 May 2001): 353-360. ERIC. EBSCO. Capella University. US. 10 May 2009 .

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Regulation and Criminal Liability Essay

Currently in the United States, the Americans continue to face unfair treatments of health care professionals within the work place. Regulates and laws have been created and set forth to help individuals’ feel protected and to know their rights as a victim of such criminal acts. People deserve to be treated with respect, especially in the care of health professionals. In this paper will contain information on criminal liabilities of health professionals and show people who may have been violated by health care providers the steps of filing a civil complaint. In addition, the paper will go into investigating allegations and disciplinary actions. Up-to-date regulatory policy regarding health care professionals is based on the speculation that the market for resources in health care is unsuccessful because consumers do not have complete facts about the nature of services these professionals offer. The outcome of some professionals possibly will exploit consumers on the condition lesser-quality services. The theory of economics proposes that in the absence of order, many health care professionals might offer minimum quality services at expensive quality prices to uneducated consumers. Therefore, the main justification for managing health professionals is to expand the quality of their services and to guard the interests of unaware health care consumers. Health care professional guidelines restrict access into the profession by setting the least possible measures of education and experience mandatory to practice. Furthermore, those regulations identify the legal acceptable boundaries of training for the health care provider or the permissible scope of health care professionals’ training and state the permitted business training of health care professionals. In the United States the federal system of government, regulates every states health care professional practice. Health professional training performances are statutory laws that create regulatory or licensing agencies or boarding to promote rules that order medical  practice. State licensing laws initiating the lesser level of education and experience needed to practice, explain the roles of the profession and bound the act of these roles to licensed individuals. State occupation practice limits restrictions on the services of professionals by for-profit firms, limitations on the operation of trade names, restrictions on the process of numerous workplaces, and boundaries on the place of health care professionals’ workplaces. Earlier in 1977 state companies practice limitations on frequently incorporated restrictions on marketing by professionals. Principles of Medical Ethics, the American Medical Association (AMA) declare a physician shall obey the law† and â€Å"record doctors’ insufficient in character or ability, or engaging in deception or fraud. AMA could refuse mem bership to doctors guilty of criminal activity, in addition to physicians charged with crimes in different countries. Reference to petition for licensure, the Federation of State Medical Boards, in connection of state medical boards’ responsibility for punishing physicians, suggests that every state medical board run criminal record review as part of licensure application practice and all candidates with a criminal background, comes before the committee for questioning to examine the candidates ability for licensure. AMA recognizes that doctors can be criminally arraigned merely to the degree of statue, and these regulations unlike state to state. Although illustrations from our data demonstrate the regular ordinary sanctions by state medical boards after the doctors have been criminally found guilty. According to AMA recent data less than 80 percent of doctors who carried out sexual acts offenses the physicians’ licenses would be revoked, suspended, or surrendered. Merely 53 % of doctors convicted of criminally possessing, using, or prescribing controlled substances and only 40% of doctors were guilty of criminal wrongdoing connected to the practice of medicine had their licenses surrendered, revoked, or suspended. The statistics show a system that permits questionable physicians to remain practicing medicine after displaying clear unethical and risky behavior. If an individual thinks that a health care provider, local or state government agency, has discriminated against he/she based on national origin, race, age, or disability, one can file a civil rights complaint. OCR can examine disability-based discrimination complaints against programs ran by HHS. Below certain regulations and statue, OCR has  slight authority to explore complaints of discrimination based on religion and sex. If an individual believe his/her health care provider moral safety rights have been breached, individuals can file a complaint with OCR. The Case Resolution Manual for Civil Rights Investigations (CRM) offers OCR managers and staff with the strategies and process designed to effectively and promptly investigate, evaluate and settle compliance and complaint evaluation, and to implement violation locations where guaranteed. When filling a complaint an individual have to follow the complaint requirements and that is followed by: (http://www.hhs.gov) Be filed in writing, either electronically via or paper the OCR Complaint Portal, by email, fax, or mail. Social service provider or health care provider involved, and describe the acts or omissions, that one believed over stepped the civil rights regulations or law. Must be filed in 180 days of when the omission complained of or act occurred. OCR could prolong the 180-day period if individual can provide a worthy reason. In conclusion individuals need to educate themselves on the laws which supposed to protect them from mistreatment of any health care provider and learn the appropriate ways to handle the situation in case of becoming a victim to any type of neglect or abuse. Physicians’ and nurses should follow the quality standards. Patients are treated with kindness, dignity, compassion, respect, honesty and understanding. References Article in Health Matrix: United States Physicians’ Disciplined for Criminal Activity, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from: http://www.citizen.org/page.aspx?pid=696 Principles of Medical Ethics, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from; http:// http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/principles-medical-ethics.page United States Department of Health and Human Resources, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from: http://www. hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/complaints/index.html#file Wilson,D., The Regulation of Health Care professionals other than Physicians, Retrieved on April 22, 2014 from;

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Agar Diffusion Investigation Essays

Agar Diffusion Investigation Essays Agar Diffusion Investigation Essay Agar Diffusion Investigation Essay Having considered the phenomena of diffusion and osmosis I have been told to do a piece of coursework to investigate the rate of diffusion when using different concentrations of acid. I have been told to use Agar. Agar is extracted from sea weed and after dissolving in hot water it cools to form a solid jelly although 99% of this is water. The agar is an inert medium that I am going to use to investigate the rate of diffusion. The agar I will be given has been made alkaline by adding a small amount of NaOH and has the indicator (phenolphthalein) incorporated which is pink in alkaline conditions. As the H+ ions from the acid diffuse in the indicator within the agar will become colourless. The acid I will be given will be 1M Hydrochloric Acid (HCl). I will be given one Petri dish of pre-prepared pink agar poured to an approximate depth of 1cm. Safety It is important to remember safety whenever working in a laboratory particularly when handling corrosive solutions such as acids and bases. To this extent it is essential to always where safety goggles when doing any experiment. In order to ensure the safety of myself, and my friends I am going to take the following safety precautions during my experiment: * Ensure safety goggles are worn at all times during the experiment. * Always ensure any beakers containing HCl are kept in away from the edge of the table. * Always wash hands after handling corrosive materials. * Ensure a good supply of paper towels is available in the event of a spillage and be sure to wipe up any spillages immediately before they escalate. Preliminary Variables I am going to investigate what variables I am going to change during my preliminary investigation. During my preliminary investigation I am going to investigate how both concentration and volume of HCl effect the time taken to turn the phenolphthalein colourless. I am also going to investigate what amount of Agar jelly solution should be used. I am going to use a cork borer and a straw to cut pieces of the agar jelly solution and compare results between the two. Preliminary Investigation Method To being with obtain one test tube rack and one stopwatch. Now take six test tubes and use the cork borer and a scalpel (if necessary) to lift three pieces of agar jelly solution. Drop the three cork borer size agar solution pieces into the first three test tubes. Take a straw and use it to cut a further three pieces of agar jelly solution using the same method as before. Drop the three straw size agar solution pieces into the final three test tubes. Now add 5ml 1M, 0.5M and 0.2M HCl to the test tubes one by one and start the stopwatch; adding the different concentrations of HCl to one of the different sized agar solutions each: Wait until the agar has turned completely colourless in the first test tube then record the time taken and repeat the process for the next test tube. Once all of the test tubes have been timed, dispose of the HCl and agar jelly in the appropriate way and clean out all 6 test tubes thoroughly. Now return the six test tubes to the test tube rack and repeat the experiment only this time varying volume of HCl used instead. Once all six test tubes have their appropriate agar jelly solution added, add 15ml, 10ml and 5ml of 0.5M HCl to the test tubes one by one and start the stop watch, adding the different volumes of HCl to one of the different sized agar solutions each: As before wait until the agar has turned completely colourless in the first test tube then record the time taken and repeat the process for the next test tube.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on Elizabeth The First

Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth Tudor has been called â€Å"perhaps history’s greatest monarch.† She is by far histories most powerful woman. The government of England in the time of Elizabeth I was very different to its modern day counterpart. Queen Elizabeth was very much a ruler, unlike the monarchs today who are largely figureheads, and made all the major decisions of government herself. The crown was not above the law, but had to act in accordance with it, but Elizabeth was still a very authoritative woman. No law could be passed without her consent. She could choose the religion of the country, decide when parliament was going to sit and what they could discuss, opt whether or not the country would go to war, make decisions regarding education, the welfare of her subjects, even what food they should eat and the clothes they were to wear. She also had the right to send men or women to prison and, or order executions. Everyone in the country had to obey her. Not to obey her was against the law, and could be treason, for which the penalty was dismemberment and death. (Life and Times) The reign of Elizabeth I began with a sense of uncertainty and danger, which would rarely leave it. The fears that assailed her new subjects at the end of 1558 were shared by many of their European neighbors, for England did not stand-alone. â€Å"Invasion of strangers, civil dissensions, the doubtful disposition of the succeeding prince, were cast in every man’s conceit as present peril.† (Brigden pg 213) The whole premise of Elizabeth’s right to rule was her divine right as a sovereign. She made no attempt to hide the fact that she believed that she was the child Henry VIII had wanted. To the rest of the world she was illegitimate, her father’s marriage to Anne Boleyn being void, and had no authority to govern. Only to her subject’s reliance in their social hierarchy kept her on the throne. Elizabeth determined to rule by love rather... Free Essays on Elizabeth The First Free Essays on Elizabeth The First Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth Tudor has been called â€Å"perhaps history’s greatest monarch.† She is by far histories most powerful woman. The government of England in the time of Elizabeth I was very different to its modern day counterpart. Queen Elizabeth was very much a ruler, unlike the monarchs today who are largely figureheads, and made all the major decisions of government herself. The crown was not above the law, but had to act in accordance with it, but Elizabeth was still a very authoritative woman. No law could be passed without her consent. She could choose the religion of the country, decide when parliament was going to sit and what they could discuss, opt whether or not the country would go to war, make decisions regarding education, the welfare of her subjects, even what food they should eat and the clothes they were to wear. She also had the right to send men or women to prison and, or order executions. Everyone in the country had to obey her. Not to obey her was against the law, and could be treason, for which the penalty was dismemberment and death. (Life and Times) The reign of Elizabeth I began with a sense of uncertainty and danger, which would rarely leave it. The fears that assailed her new subjects at the end of 1558 were shared by many of their European neighbors, for England did not stand-alone. â€Å"Invasion of strangers, civil dissensions, the doubtful disposition of the succeeding prince, were cast in every man’s conceit as present peril.† (Brigden pg 213) The whole premise of Elizabeth’s right to rule was her divine right as a sovereign. She made no attempt to hide the fact that she believed that she was the child Henry VIII had wanted. To the rest of the world she was illegitimate, her father’s marriage to Anne Boleyn being void, and had no authority to govern. Only to her subject’s reliance in their social hierarchy kept her on the throne. Elizabeth determined to rule by love rather...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Napoleons Empire

Napoleon's Empire The borders of France and the states ruled by France grew during the wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. On May 12th, 1804 these conquests received a new name: the Empire, ruled by a hereditary Bonaparte Emperor. The first – and in the end only – emperor was Napoleon, and at times he ruled vast swathes of the European continent: by 1810 it was easier to list the regions he didn’t dominate: Portugal, Sicily, Sardinian, Montenegro, and the British, Russian and  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Ottoman Empires. However, while it’s easy to think of the Napoleonic Empire as one monolith, there was considerable variation within the states. The Make-Up of the Empire The empire was divided into a three-tier system. Pays Rà ©unis: this was land governed by the administration in Paris, and included the France of the natural frontiers (i.e. the Alps, the Rhine and the Pyrenees), plus states now subsumed into this government: Holland, Piedmont, Parma, the Papal States, Tuscany, the Illyrian Provinces and a lot more of Italy. Including France, this totaled 130 departments in 1811 – the peak of the empire – with forty-four million people. Pays Conquis: a set of conquered, although supposedly independent, countries which were ruled by people approved by Napoleon (largely his relatives or military commanders), designed to buffer France from attack. The nature of these states ebbed and flowed with the wars, but included the Confederation of the Rhine, Spain, Naples, the Duchy of Warsaw and parts of Italy. As Napoleon developed his empire, these came under greater control. Pays Allià ©s: The third level was fully independent states who were bought, often unwillingly, under Napoleon’s control. During the Napoleonic Wars Prussia, Austria and Russia were both enemies and unhappy allies. The Pays Rà ©unis and Pays Conquis formed the Grand Empire; in 1811, this totaled 80 million people. In addition, Napoleon redrew central Europe, and another empire ceased: the Holy Roman Empire was disbanded on August 6th, 1806, never to return. Nature of the Empire The treatment of states in the empire varied depending on how long they remained part of it, and whether they were in the Pays Rà ©unis or Pays Conquis. It’s worth pointing out that some historians reject the idea of time as a factor, and focus on regions in which pre-napoleon events inclined them to be more receptive to Napoleon’s changes. States in the Pays Rà ©unis before the Napoleonic era were fully departmentalized and saw the benefits of the revolution, with the end of ‘feudalism’ (such as it existed), plus land redistribution. States in both the Pays Rà ©unis and Pays Conquis received the Napoleonic legal Code, the Concordat, tax demands, and administration based on the French system. Napoleon also created ‘dotations’. These were areas of land seized from conquered enemies where the entire revenue was given to Napoleon’s subordinates, conceivably forever if the heirs stayed loyal. In practice they were a huge drain on the loca l economies: the Duchy of Warsaw lost 20% of revenue in dotations. Variation remained in outlying areas, and in some privileges survived through the era, unaltered by Napoleon. His introduction of his own system was less ideologically driven and more practical, and he would pragmatically accept survivals which the revolutionaries would have cut out. His driving force was to keep control. Nevertheless, we can see the early republics being transformed slowly into more centralized states as Napoleon’s reign developed and he envisioned more of a European empire. One factor in this was the success and failure of the men Napoleon had placed in charge of conquered lands – his family and officers – because they varied greatly in their loyalty, sometimes proving more interested in their new land than aiding their patron despite in most cases owing everything to him. Most of Napoleon’s clan appointments were poor local leaders, and an exasperated Napoleon sought more control. Some of Napoleon’s appointees were genuinely interested in effecting liberal reforms and being loved by their new states: Beauharnais created a stable, loyal and balanced government in Italy and was very popular. However, Napoleon prevented him from doing more, and often clashed with his other rulers: Murat and Joseph ‘failed’ with the constitution and Continental System in Naples. Louis in Holland rejected much of his brother’s demands and was ousted from power by an angry Napoleon. Spain, under the ineffectual Joseph, couldn’t really have gone more wrong. Napoleon’s Motives In public, Napoleon was able to promote his empire by stating laudatory aims. These included safeguarding the revolution against Europe’s monarchies and spreading freedom throughout oppressed nations. In practice, Napoleon was driven by other motives, although their competing nature is still debated by historians. It’s less likely that Napoleon began his career with a plan to rule Europe in a universal monarchy – a sort of Napoleon dominated empire which covered the whole continent – and more likely he evolved into wanting this as the opportunities of war brought him greater and greater success, feeding his ego and expanding his aims. However, a hunger for glory and a hunger for power – whatever power that may be - seem to have been his over-riding concerns for much of his career. Napoleon’s Demands on Empire As parts of the empire, the conquered states were expected to assist in furthering Napoleon’s aims. The cost of the new warfare, with greater armies, meant more expense than ever before, and Napoleon used the empire to for funds and troops: success funded more attempts at success. Food, equipment, goods, soldiers, and tax were all drained out by Napoleon, much of it in the form of heavy, often annual, tribute payments. Napoleon had another demand on his empire: thrones and crowns on which to place and reward his family and followers. While this form of patronage left Napoleon in control of the empire by keeping leaders tightly bound to him – although putting close supporters in power didn’t always work, such as in Spain and Sweden – it also let him keep his allies happy. Large estates were carved out of the empire both to reward and to encourage the recipients to fight to keep the empire. However, all these appointments were told to think of Napoleon and France first, and their new homes second. The Briefest of Empires The empire was created militarily and had to be enforced militarily. It survived the failures of Napoleon’s appointments only as long as Napoleon was winning to support it. Once Napoleon failed, it was swiftly able to eject him and many of the puppet leaders, although the administrations often remained intact. Historians have debated whether the empire could have lasted and whether Napoleon’s conquests if allowed to last, would have created a unified Europe still dreamt of by many. Some historians have concluded that Napoleon’s empire was a form of continental colonialism that could not have lasted. But in the aftermath, as Europe adapted, a lot of the structures Napoleon put in place survived. Of course, historians debate exactly what and how much, but new, modern administrations could be found all over Europe. The empire created, in part, more bureaucratic states, better access to the administration for the bourgeoisie, legal codes, limits on the aristocracy an d church, better tax models for the state, religious toleration and secular control in church land and roles.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Review of the Recent Movies that you watch Essay

Review of the Recent Movies that you watch - Essay Example After the Crowned Prince of Austria is discovered dead, the authorities term it as a suicide case, but Sherlock Holmes is not satisfied and goes on to find that it is only one murder in a series of assassinations and explosions aimed at putting the European nations at war. Professor Moriarty is especially cunning and hides all manner of evidence that could lead back to him, including poisoning Irene Adler (Rachel McAdams). This he also uses as a warning to Sherlock Holmes that if he continues countering the professor’s actions, the same might also happen to his closest friend Dr. Watson (Jude Law) and his newly-wedded wife, Mary Watson (Kelly Reilly). The ensuing drama and action takes us from Victorian London to Paris and Switzerland where they also happen to meet Sherlock’s brother, Mycroft (Stephen Fry), who is well connected in the diplomatic realm and proves to be an indispensable asset. The viewer is treated to a great deal of the scenery in that particular point of history only that we have to look quickly as the movie dashes through episodes. Unfortunately, this did not contribute well in bringing out the classic Holmes story. But it is understandable because, in the current world of movie production, a chance of getting an authentic Sherlock Holmes movie is rather difficult. Two female characters have been important in the propagation of the plot. We meet a new character, Madame Simza Heron (Noomi Rapace), a gypsy fortune teller who gets mixed up with Moriarty’s evil plans and works with Holmes to save her brother from the professor’s traps. Irene Adler is back again, but her romantic relations with Holmes now lead to her demise. Dr. Watson also plays a major role in the movie, being more involved in the action not only as a friend and chronicler, but also as a hero. Holmes remains my most favorite character in the movie. His humorous choice of words as well as disguise takes the viewers by surprise, especially at

Friday, October 18, 2019

Internship Project Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Internship Project - Case Study Example These skills, when ignored, often result in serious management problems and above-board consequences. The internship will educate employees about their corporate responsibilities and market set-up, while providing them financial assistance. By doing so, Joongangilbo ITEA will prove to be a valuable resource to small businesses and employees within Korea, because it will act as a publishing consulting agency by providing accommodating solutions to many employees from small enterprises for free.The evaluations will serve to encourage those facilities already in compliance that they are carrying out in their business practices in a business and ideally educational environment, and will propose instant changes for those facilities that are not complying with the corporate and work ethic values. The study will serve as a model for accounting and secretarial facilities all over Korea, and will identify problem areas in business compliance. The Internship program in Joongangilbo ITEA is designed as a connection between the publishing industry, small businesses and its employees within Korea with the ultimate goal of improving corporate concepts of leadership, marketing, entrepreneurship and acquiescence. The program is supported by the Department of Labor as an effort to train employees from small businesses. To help facilitate i... The company's headquarters are situated in Seoul, the capital city, while five other campuses are in other major destinations. The workshops are generally organized in the head office; however special courses can be accommodated upon demand. Details of Work Accomplished/Project Results: I had an internship with a company called Joongangilbo ITEA. Joongangilbo is one of the most famous and biggest newspaper publishing companies in Korea and Joongangilbo ITEA is its subsidiary. The company functions as an educational organization as well and provides different types of educational programs to people who wish to gain knowledge of useful business concepts. Among lots of department, I was assigned to a department that arranges the educational workshops for employees from small and intermediate level companies. This, in turn, provides better prospect for their business sector. Actually, my department was supported by the Department of Labor, and aimed towards educating employees of small and medium enterprises on different themes of leadership, management marketing, advertising, entrepreneurship, etc. The Department of Labor pays for the education fee and compensation for every participating member of the internship project. As a result, the company achieves a positive end by having a large number of participants and well-estimated costs of education and training session. On the other hand, The Department of Labor limited the number of internship participants to 36 per class. For this reason, the Joongangilbo ITEA makes break-even with 30 participants in the whole project. Consequently, good marketing, financing, and accounting should be accomplished for the company to yield some profits. In order to assemble and train all the

Global Warming Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5750 words

Global Warming - Essay Example Center of discussion in this paper is Global Warming as a constant problem. We have to turn off greenhouse gases now in order to avoid catastrophe in decades to come. If global temperatures rise by four degrees by century’s end, sea levels will rise five to six meters due to the melting of our polar ice caps. It’s time to connect the dots from those remote Arctic regions to our cities, towns, and backyards. Let’s consider what the future might look like if global warming continues unchecked. According to recent studies Americans rank climate change as the country’s most critical environmental problem. Current observations of global warming related data have solidified the speculation that it is positively an enhanced greenhouse effect that is causing the world to warm. The planet has experienced the biggest increase in surface temperature over the last century. Between 2003 and 2006, the Earth’s average surface temperature rose between 0.6 to 0.9 de grees Celsius; the last 50 years saw the temperature increase rate almost doubling. Sea levels have shown a rise of about 0.17 meters during the twentieth century. Low-lying coastal regions, with thick population, are especially susceptible to climate shifts, with the poorer countries and small island nations having the hardest time adapting. It has been estimated that by 2080, 13 to 88 million people around the world would lose their home to floods. This research will demonstrate that there are numerous opinions on the causes of climate change. Are they manmade or natural? Global warming is a convoluted subject. It’s easy to get confused by all the scientific arguments and conflicting claims. The purpose of this research is to attempt to get the scientific community to agree that global warming related variables can be combated more efficiently with better cooperation. Take politics, economics, greed, and self interests of various governments out of the debate and merely foc us on the facts, and labeling the problem whatever you desire, can and will support worldwide comprehensive improvements. Problem Statement: Global Warming is a constant problem. We have to turn off greenhouse gases now in order to avoid catastrophe in decades to come. If global temperatures rise by four degrees by century’s end, sea levels will rise five to six meters due to the melting of our polar ice caps. It’s time to connect the dots from those remote Arctic regions to our cities, towns, and backyards. Let’s consider what the future might look like if global warming continues unchecked. Rationale for the Research: This is an issue that is approached very differently by the scientific community. This topic could affect all living organisms, the environment not just in the United States, but the entire world. From 2003 to

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Human Resource Management Practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Human Resource Management Practice - Essay Example The performance of an organization is rooted in the contributions of each and every person working in that organization. Performance therefore is the greatest motivation of HRM. It is however important to note that an organization's culture impacts on the performance of that organization (Denison, 1990). This therefore implies that performance and consequently HRM approach of an organization takes cue directly from the organization's culture. Therefore each organization has embraced HRM approach that closely fits it based on its culture and culture being every aspect of the organization at every level i.e. from explicit manifestations of traditions to the underlying assumptions that drive a company or organization (Schein, 2004). This paper seeks to explain why a given HRM approach closely and uniquely fits a particular organization. This is achieved, by choosing a case organization, identifying its HRM approach and explaining why the HRM approach in that organization fits them. Before we choose the case organization it is important to highlight the major approaches to HRM. These include vision, commitment, appraisal, agile structures and re branding. Vision needs to be communicated to the employees from the top. Commitment can be attained by using motivational approaches so that the personnel can have commitment to their work. In agile structures, there is redesign of organizational structures to embrace flexibility so as to stimulate employees to handle a variety of roles in the growing group dynamics with the aim of maximizing efficiency and output. In appraisal, the employees are evaluated to witness their progress and address areas where they need to be developed. Finally, re branding approach refers to the changing of the old names such as "personnel department" to HRM department with an emphasis that it is a department representing the most caring and considerate part of the company. To get an edge in the market through HRM it is important that the HRM function caters for: planning, consistent design and management of workforce systems, strong policy on employment and manpower strategy, harmonization of HRM activities/ policies with the overt business plan/strategy and considering the workforce as a resource for attaining a competitive edge in the market. (Armstrong, 2006) Take Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd for instance. Samsung is an organization that deals within a fierce market competition. Therefore, to survive in such a market it is imperative to arrange and effectively utilize the human resource at their disposal. Samsung believes strongly that despite the fact that human resource and technological development are two different functions; their interaction creates a synergy that bears on success in the market rooted in internal quality management. It also believes that when good relations exist between the employees and when employees are happy doing their jobs, then this is good for the organization. It is good because the employee is in good frame of mind and he/she has the motivation to beat deadlines, carry out responsibility without much supervision and above all feeling part of the organization. Therefore, Samsung tries to encourage good relations among employees for the purpose of highly motivated and competent workers. Human resource development is a very important and central aspect of human Resource Management. When an organization emphasizes on developing their

Content Writing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7000 words

Content Writing - Essay Example with the English language and being a stranger to the Western education system, these students do require professional assistance for their term papers. Thus it took no time for us to realize that there desperately existed a need for a quality oriented custom research company. Yet, our allegiance to academic and professional standards required us to incorporate certain special features in our services. Some such salient features are; The writers at ***.com do see to it that each and every term paper is customized as per the customer requirements and while taking into consideration the constraints imposed by the topic, context and formatting style. A: Most of the writers serving with ***.com are either serving or retired teachers, meritorious students or the experts having special knowledge in a specific field. Hence they are conversant with the current academic trends and requirements. Besides our writers positively encourage our customers to be open and elaborate with their instructions and concerns. This ensures that every term paper is made to order and strictly in accordance with the customer requirements. A: Our seasoned and experienced administrators make it a point to strictly restrict the third party access to customers’ personal information and identity. Only a select group of our trusted employees is allowed access to the personal data furnished by our customers that is encrypted before being saved. You will be surprised to know that even our writers are never aware of the identity of the customers for whom they draft essays and term papers. Any revelation pertaining to the hiring of our essay writing services is an exclusive prerogative left to our customers. A: ***com’s commitment to furnishing custom written essays and term papers makes it imperative for us to allow our customers an unhampered access to their order status. Customers having an account with us can login any time and as per their convenience to track their order status, to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Consumer Behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Consumer Behaviour - Essay Example As per definition, WOM refers to the process of oral communication between two individuals where the individuals increasingly communicate important values or related information pertaining to a particular category or brand. The advantage of WOM over standards methods of advertising is that the WOM marketing happens mostly through the process of communication of two individuals at a significantly lower price as compared to that of advertising. The word of mouth marketing has significantly high level of benefits on the development of the brand value for the product as well as the company2. For globally renowned Fiskars, it can be said that the company can leverage a lot of advantage out of the word of mouth marketing technique by maintaining high end quality for its products as well as introducing innovativeness in the product design. A vital point is that though the company’s product mostly falls under the consumer durables category, it increasingly caters to three business areas like the home division, the garden division and the outdoor division. The products especially for the outdoor division are extremely critical in nature and needs supreme durability and consistency in quality. As a matter of fact, a highly reputed brand that provides consistent quality will automatically lead to higher sales especially for this division, if accompanied by the consumer driven word of mouth marketing tool3. There are significant steps that have to be followed by the company, in order prevent negative impact due to the word of mouth marketing for the company’s products. A very important factor is the fact that the company needs to secure its distribution network across the global markets in the wake of various fluctuating scenarios of macro economic conditions. The company also needs to secure the flow of various raw materials

Content Writing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7000 words

Content Writing - Essay Example with the English language and being a stranger to the Western education system, these students do require professional assistance for their term papers. Thus it took no time for us to realize that there desperately existed a need for a quality oriented custom research company. Yet, our allegiance to academic and professional standards required us to incorporate certain special features in our services. Some such salient features are; The writers at ***.com do see to it that each and every term paper is customized as per the customer requirements and while taking into consideration the constraints imposed by the topic, context and formatting style. A: Most of the writers serving with ***.com are either serving or retired teachers, meritorious students or the experts having special knowledge in a specific field. Hence they are conversant with the current academic trends and requirements. Besides our writers positively encourage our customers to be open and elaborate with their instructions and concerns. This ensures that every term paper is made to order and strictly in accordance with the customer requirements. A: Our seasoned and experienced administrators make it a point to strictly restrict the third party access to customers’ personal information and identity. Only a select group of our trusted employees is allowed access to the personal data furnished by our customers that is encrypted before being saved. You will be surprised to know that even our writers are never aware of the identity of the customers for whom they draft essays and term papers. Any revelation pertaining to the hiring of our essay writing services is an exclusive prerogative left to our customers. A: ***com’s commitment to furnishing custom written essays and term papers makes it imperative for us to allow our customers an unhampered access to their order status. Customers having an account with us can login any time and as per their convenience to track their order status, to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Two Career Versus Single Career Families Essay Example for Free

Two Career Versus Single Career Families Essay Families with two working parents are more common today than in years past.   The percentage of stay at home parents has been dwindling since WWII when women started entering the job force at a rapid rate.   While there are plenty of working families, many families still have a stay at home parent, especially with very young children in the home.   The differences between two career and single career families can be noticed in their economical situation, in their involvement with their children, and in their recreational activities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The financial situations of families with two working parents and families with one working parent vary.   Two career households typically bring in more revenue.   They also spend less on utilities on average because there are less household members in the family during the day.   Two career families often have daycare expenses, however, but these dwindle as children age and attend school. Depending on the career of the breadwinner, single career families typically make less money on average than families with two working parents.   Utilities and food costs could run a bit higher because more people are in the home more often than families where both parents work.   A bonus to having a stay at home parent is that there are relatively little or no costs associated with day care expenses. Overall, a family with two working parents will have a better financial situation than a single career family.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another difference between a two career family and a one career family is the amount of and degree of involvement with the children.   Two career families often have a difficult time finding opportunities to volunteer in schools or take their children special places during the week due to their work schedules.   They are restricted by their employers on the amount of time that they can take off of work as well, so they may have to rely on babysitters or family members to do things such as take the children to scheduled appointments such as the doctor or dentist. Single career families, on the other hand, rarely have these issues.   A stay at home parent has more time and opportunity to do things like volunteer in the community or join groups where they have interaction with other parents and children.   If school age children are in the home, a stay at home parent can volunteer in the school, get the children from school if necessary and even do nice things like take them out to lunch once in awhile.   A stay at home parent also does not need to find alternate care for doctor and dentist appointments.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another noticeable difference between two career families and single career families is the type of recreation that they engage in.   Often, when both parents work during the day, they fill their evenings catching up on their children’s activities and lives in between cooking dinner and catching up on household chores.   They often restrict their children’s’ extracurricular activities because there simply is not enough time to do everything.   Two career families can save up for family vacations when both parents can take time off. Single career families seem to have more children involved in more activities.   These families don’t restrict activities as much because there is someone at home during the day taking care of the chores; there is no catch up in the evening, so it is easier for everyone to do more things.   Single career families often do not take vacation because they cannot afford it and their schedules are full already with all of the extracurricular activities that the children are involved in.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are advantages to both two career and single career families.   Two career families generally have more revenue and can save up for vacation time, but miss out on other valuable time with their children.   Single career homes have someone at home taking care of all of the necessary chores, so the family can enjoy more activities, but on average, they have less revenue to do things like take long vacations.   Either way, a family is a family, and the most important thing they can share is love.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Mathematics In The Game Of Chess Maths Essay

Mathematics In The Game Of Chess Maths Essay INTRODUCTION: Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64  squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponents king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in check) and there is no way to remove or defend it from attack on the next move. The games present form emerged in Europe during the second half of the 15th century, an evolution of an older Indian game, Shatranj. Theoreticians have developed extensive chess strategies and tactics since the games inception. Computers have been used for many years to create chess-playing programs, and their abilities and insights have contributed significantly to modern chess theory. One, Deep Blue, was the first machine to beat a reigning World Chess Champion when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. Matches between individuals took place as early as the 9th century. The tradition of organized competitive chess started during the 16th century. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Viswanathan Anand from India. In addition to the World Championship, there is also the WomenHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Womens_World_Chess_ChampionshipHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Womens_World_Chess_Championships World Championship, the Junior World Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships (see fast chess). The Chess Olympiad is a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee and international chess competi tion is sanctioned by the FIDE. Today, chess is one of the worlds most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments. Some other popular forms of chess are fast chess and computer chess. There are also many chess variants which have different rules, different pieces, different boards, etc. History Iranian chess set, glazed fritware, 12th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Knights Templar playing chess, Libro de los juegos, 1283. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in North-West India during the Gupta empire, where its early form in the 6th century was known as caturaà ¡Ã‚ ¹Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ga (Sanskrit: four divisions [of the military] infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariotry, represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively). The earliest evidence of Chess is found in the neighboring Sassanid Persia around 600 where the game came to be known under the name chatrang. Chatrang is evoked inside three epic romances written in Pahlavi (Medium Persian). Chatrang was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia (633-644) where it was then named shatranj, with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names. In Spanish shatranj was rendered as ajedrez, in Portuguese as xadrez, and in Greek as zatrikion (which directly comes from Persian chatrang), but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shÄ h (king ), which was familiar as an exclamation and became the English words check and chess. Murray theorized that this change happened from Muslim traders coming to European seaports with ornamental chess kings as curios before they brought the game of chess. The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe. Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors in the 10th century, it was described in a famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj, backgammon, and dice named the Libro de los juegos. Another theory contends that chess arose from the game xiangqi (Chinese Chess) or one of its predecessors, although this has been contested. ___________________________________________________ Mathematics In The Game Of Chess Legend has it that the game was invented by a mathematician in India who elicited a huge reward for its creation. The King of India was so impressed with the game that he asked the mathematician to name a prize as reward. Not wishing to appear greedy, the mathematician asked for one grain of rice to be placed on the first square of the chess board, two grains on the second, four on the third and so on. The number of grains of rice should be doubled each time. The King thought that hed got away lightly, but little did he realise the power of doubling to make things big very quickly. By the sixteenth square there was already a kilo of rice on the chess board. By the twentieth square his servant needed to bring in a wheelbarrow of rice. He never reached the 64th and last square on the board. By that point the rice on the board would have totalled a staggering 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 grains. Playing chess has strong resonances with doing mathematics. There are simple rules for the way each chess piece moves but beyond these basic constraints, the pieces can roam freely across the board. Mathematics also proceeds by taking self-evident truths (called axioms) about properties of numbers and geometry and then by applying basic rules of logic you proceed to move mathematics from its starting point to deduce new statements about numbers and geometry. For example, using the moves allowed by mathematics the 18th-century mathematician Lagrange reached an endgame that showed that every number can be written as the sum of four square numbers, a far from obvious fact. For example, 310 = 172 +42 + 22 + 12. Some mathematicians have turned their analytic skills on the game of chess itself. A classic problem called the Knights Tour asks whether it is possible to use a knight to jump around the chess board visiting each square once only. The first examples were documented in a 9th-century Arabic manuscript. It is only within the past decade that mathematical techniques have been developed to count exactly how many such tours are possible. It isnt just mathematicians and chess players who have been fascinated by the Knights Tour. The highly styled Sanskrit poem Kavyalankara presents the Knights Tour in verse form. And in the 20th century, the French author Georges Perecs novel Life: A Users Manual describes an apartment with 100 rooms arranged in a 1010 grid. In the novel the order that the author visits the rooms is determined by a Knights Tour on a 1010 chessboard. Mathematicians have also analysed just how many games of chess are possible. If you were to line up chessboards side by side, the number of them you would need to reach from one side of the observable universe to the other would require only 28 digits. Yet Claude Shannon, the mathematician credited as the father of the digital age, estimated that the number of unique games you could play was of the order of 10120 (a 1 followed by 120 0s). Its this level of complexity that makes chess such an attractive game and ensures that at the Olympiad in Russia in 2010, local spectators will witness games of chess never before seen by the human eye, even if the winning team turns out to have familiar names. ________________________________________________________ Rules The official rules of chess are maintained by the World Chess Federation. Along with information on official chess tournaments, the rules are described in the FIDE Handbook, section Laws of Chess.[2] Setup Pieces at the start of a game A b C d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 A b C D e f g h Initial position: first row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: pawns Chess is played on a square board of eight rows (called ranks and denoted with numbers 1 to 8) and eight columns (called files and denoted with letters a to h) of squares. The colors of the sixty-four squares alternate and are referred to as light squares and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right hand end of the rank nearest to each player, and the pieces are set out as shown in the diagram, with each queen on its own color. The pieces are divided, by convention, into white and black sets. The players are referred to as White and Black, and each begins the game with sixteen pieces of the specified color. These consist of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights and eight pawns. ___________________________________________________________________________ Movement White always moves first. After the initial move, the players alternately move one piece at a time (with the exception of castling, when two pieces are moved). Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square, or one occupied by an opponents piece, capturing it and removing it from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture opponents pieces by moving to the square that the opponents piece occupies. A player may not make any move which would put or leave his king under attack. If the player to move has no legal moves, the game is over; it is either a checkmate-if the king is under attack-or a stalemate-if the king is not. Each chess piece has its own style of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares where the piece can move if no other pieces (including ones own piece) are on the squares between the pieces initial position and its destination. The king moves one square in any direction, the king has also a special move which is called castling and also involves a rook. The rook can move any number of squares along any rank or file, but may not leap over other pieces. Along with the king, the rook is also involved during the kings castling move. The bishop can move any number of squares diagonally, but may not leap over other pieces. The queen combines the power of the rook and bishop and can move any number of squares along rank, file, or diagonal, but it may not leap over other pieces. The knight moves to any of the closest squares which are not on the same rank, file or diagonal, thus the move forms an L-shape two squares long and one square wide. The knight is the only piece which can leap over other pieces. The pawn may move forward to the unoccupied square immediately in front of it on the same file, or on its first move it may advance two squares along the same file provided both squares are unoccupied, or it may move to a square occupied by an opponents piece, which is diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file, capturing that piece. The pawn has two special moves, the en passant capture, and pawn promotion. Moves of a king a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c D e f g h Moves of a rook a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c D e f g h Moves of a bishop a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c D e f g h Moves of a queen a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c D e f g h Moves of a knight a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c D e f g h Moves of a pawn a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c D e f g h * Pawns can optionally move two squares forward instead of one on their first move only. They capture diagonally (black xs); they cannot capture with their normal move (black circles). Pawns are also involved in the special move en passant (below). Check When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponents pieces, it is said to be in check. A response to a check is a legal move if it results in a position where the king is no longer under direct attack (i.e. not in check). This can involve capturing the checking piece, interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king (which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king), or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack. Castling is not a permissible response to a check. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponents king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack. End of the game Although the objective of the game is to checkmate the opponent, chess games do not have to end in checkmate-either player may resign if the situation looks hopeless. It is considered bad etiquette to continue playing when in a truly hopeless position. If it is a timed game a player may run out of time and lose, even with a much superior position. Games also may end in a draw (tie). A draw can occur in several situations, including draw by agreement, stalemate, threefold repetition of a position, the fifty-move rule, or a draw by impossibility of checkmate (usually because of insufficient material to checkmate). As checkmate from some positions cannot be forced in less than 50 moves (see e.g. pawnless chess endgame and two knights endgame), the fifty-move rule is not applied everywhere,[6] particularly in correspondence chess. White is in checkmate a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c d e f g h White is in checkmate. He cannot escape from being attacked by the Black king and bishops. Stalemate a B c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c d e f g h Stalemate if Black is to move. The position is not checkmate, and since Black cannot move, the game is a draw. Time control A modern digital chess clock Besides casual games without any time restriction, chess is also played with a time control, mostly by club and professional players. If a players time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost (provided his opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate). The duration of a game ranges from long games played up to seven hours to shorter rapid chess games lasting usually 30 minutes or one hour per game. Even shorter is blitz chess with a time control of three to fifteen minutes for each player, or bullet chess (under three minutes). In tournament play, time is controlled using a game clock which has two displays, one for each players remaining time. ________________________________________________________ Notation for recording moves Naming the squares in algebraic chess notation Chess games and positions are recorded using a special notation, most often algebraic chess notation. Abbreviated (or short) algebraic notation generally records moves in the format abbreviation of the piece moved file where it moved rank where it moved, e.g. Qg5 means queen moves to the g-file and 5th rank (that is, to the square g5). If there are two pieces of the same type that can move to the same square, one more letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved, e.g. Ngf3 means knight from the g-file moves to the square f3. The letter P indicating a pawn is not used, so that e4 means pawn moves to the square e4. If the piece makes a capture, x is inserted before the destination square, e.g. Bxf3 means bishop captures on f3. When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous. For example, exd5 (pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5) or exd (pawn on e-file captures something on the d-file). ScholarHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholars_mateHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholars_mates mate If a pawn moves to its last rank, achieving promotion, the piece chosen is indicated after the move, for example e1Q or e1=Q. Castling is indicated by the special notations 0-0 for kingside castling and 0-0-0 for queenside castling. A move which places the opponents king in check usually has the notation + added. Checkmate can be indicated by # (occasionally ++, although this is sometimes used for a double check instead). At the end of the game, 1-0 means White won, 0-1 means Black won and  ½- ½ indicates a draw. Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. For example ! indicates a good move, !! an excellent move, ? a mistake, a blunder, !? an interesting move that may not be best or ?! a dubious move, but not easily refuted.[1] For example, one variant of a simple trap known as the ScholarHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholars_mateHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholars_mates mate, animated in the picture to the right, can be recorded: e4 e5 Qh5?! Nc6 Bc4 Nf6 Qxf7# 1-0 ________________________________________________________ Strategy and tactics Chess strategy consists of setting and achieving long-term goals during the game for example, where to place different pieces while tactics concentrate on immediate manoeuvre. These two parts of chess thinking cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved by the means of tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play. A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: opening, typically the first 10 to 25 moves, when players move their pieces into useful positions for the coming battle; middlegame, usually the fiercest part of the game; and endgame, when most of the pieces are gone, kings typically take a more active part in the struggle, and pawn promotion is often decisive. Opening A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game (the opening moves). Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defence. They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. There are dozens of different openings, varying widely in character from quiet positional play (e.g. the Rà ©ti Opening) to very aggressive (e.g. the Latvian Gambit). In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves. Professional players spend years studying openings, and continue doing so throughout their careers, as opening theory continues to evolve. The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Development: To place (develop) the pieces (particularly bishops and knights) on useful squares where they will have an optimal impact on the game. Control of the center: Control of the central squares allows pieces to be moved to any part of the board relatively easily, and can also have a cramping effect on the opponent. King safety: Keeping the king safe from dangerous possibilities. A correct timing for castling can often enhance this. Pawn structure: Players strive to avoid the creation of pawn weaknesses such as isolated, doubled or backward pawns, and pawn islands and to force such weaknesses in the opponents position. Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage. This initially gives White the initiative. Black usually strives to neutralize Whites advantage and achieve equality, or to develop dynamic counterplay in an unbalanced position. Middlegame The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed. (Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame, see start of the HYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_endgame#The_start_of_the_endgameendgame.) Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time to take into account the tactical possibilities in the position. The middlegame is also the phase in which most combinations occur. Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponents king; some typical patterns have their own names, for example the BodenHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodens_MateHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodens_Mates Mate or the Lasker- Bauer combination. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure. For example, the minority attack, that is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside. The study of openings should therefore be connected with the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames. Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transform into an endgame (i.e. simplify). For example, minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending. Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes with a two-pawn advantage. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Endgame a B c D e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a B c d e f g h An example of zugzwang: the side which is to make a move is at a disadvantage. The endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and endgame: During the endgame, pawns become more important; endgames often revolve around attempting to promote a pawn by advancing it to the eighth rank. The king, which has to be protected in the middlegame owing to the threat of checkmate, becomes a strong piece in the endgame. It is often brought to the center of the board where it can protect its own pawns, attack the pawns of opposite color, and hinder movement of the opponents king. Zugzwang, a disadvantage because the player has to make a move, is often a factor in endgames but rarely in other stages of the game. For example, the diagram on the right is zugzwang for both sides, as with Black to move he must play 1Kb7 and let White promote a pawn after 2.Kd7; and with White to move he must allow a draw by 1.Kc6 stalemate or lose his last pawn by any other legal move. Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces that remain on board. Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king. For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns. Other more complicated endings are classified according to the pieces on board other than kings, such as the rook and pawn versus rook endgame. Origins of the modern game (1000-1850) A tactical puzzle from LucenaHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Ramirez_de_LucenaHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Ramirez_de_Lucenas 1497 book Around 1200, rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around 1475, several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today. These modern rules for the basic moves had been adopted in Italy and Spain. Pawns gained the option of advancing two squares on their first move, while bishops and queens acquired their modern abilities. The queen replaced the earlier vizier chess piece towards the end of the 10th century and by the 15th century, had become the most powerful piece; consequently modern chess was referred to as Queens Chess or Mad Queen Chess. These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe, with the exception of the rules about stalemate, which were finalized in the early 19th century. To distinguish it from its predecessors, this version of the rules is sometimes referred to as western chess or international chess. Writings about the theory of how to play chess began to appear in the 15th century. The Repeticià ³n de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena was published in Salamanca in 1497. Lucena and later masters like Portuguese Pedro Damiano, Italians Giovanni Leonardo Di Bona, Giulio Cesare Polerio and Gioachino Greco or Spanish bishop Ruy Là ³pez de Segura developed elements of openings and started to analyze simple endgames. Franà §ois-Andrà © Danican Philidor, 18th-century French chess Master In the 18th century the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France. The two most important French masters were Franà §ois-Andrà © Danican Philidor, a musician by profession, who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy, and later Louis-Charles Mahà © de La Bourdonnais who won a famous series of matches with the Irish master Alexander McDonnell in 1834. Centers of chess activity in this period were coffee houses in big European cities like Cafà © de la Rà ©gence in Paris and SimpsonHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simpsons-in-the-StrandHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simpsons-in-the-Strands Divan in London. As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs, chess books and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in 1824. Chess problems became a regular part of 19th-century newspapers; Bernhard Horwitz, Josef Kling and Samuel Loyd composed some of the most influential problems. In 1843, von der Lasa published his and BilguerHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Rudolf_von_BilguerHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Rudolf_von_Bilguers Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess), the first comprehensive manual of chess theory. ________________________________________________________ Competitive play Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments and congresses. Chesss international governing body is FIDE (Fà ©dà ©ration Internationale des Échecs). Most countries have a national chess organization as well (such as the US Chess Federation and English Chess Federation), which in turn is a member of FIDE. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games; chess does have its own Olympiad, held every two years as a team event. The current World Chess Champion Viswanathan Anand (left) playing chess against his predecessor Vladimir Kramnik. The current World Chess Champion is Viswanathan Anand of India. The reigning Womens World Champion is Alexandra Kosteniuk from Russia but the worlds highest rated female player, Judit Polgà ¡r, has never participated in the WomenHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Womens_World_Chess_ChampionshipHYPERLINK http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Womens_World_Chess_Championships World Chess Championship, instead preferring to compete with the leading men and maintaining a ranking among the top male players. Other competitions for individuals include the World Junior Chess Championship, the European Individual Chess Championship and the National Chess Championships. Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the worlds strongest players and these include Spains Linares event, Monte Carlos Melody Amber tournament, the Dortmund Sparkassen meeting, Sofias M-tel Masters and Wijk aan Zees Corus tournament. Regular

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Background and Summary of King Lear :: Essays Papers

Background and Summary of King Lear Background of King Lear King Lear was written between 1603 and 1606, and is considered to be Shakespeare's greatest tragedy. The main plot was drawn from an old chronicle play called The True Chronicle History of King Leir and his Three Daughters, supplemented by treatments of that story in Raphael Holinshed's Chronicle of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Spenser's The Faerie Queen, and perhaps others. The subplot of Gloucester and his two sons comes from Sir Philip Sidney's popular romance The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia. Shakespeare also makes considerable use of Samuel Harsnett's Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures (1603) for Edgar's language of demonic possession as Poor Tom and the mock exorcism he works to cure the blinded Gloucester's despair. The play was performed December 26, 1606, for King James, as part of the court's Christmastide celebrations, as well as on the public stage at the Globe. Recoiling from the bleakness of the play's tragic vision, Naham Tate revised it in 1681, providing interpolated love scenes between Edgar and Cordelia and a happy ending in which Lear and Cordelia survive: his version held the stage for a century and a half. Dr. Samuel Johnson and the Romantic poets testified to the original play's greatness--Shelley terming it "the most perfect specimen of dramatic poetry existing in the world"--but they also began a critical tradition that judged the work too large and sublime for the stage. Lear has, however, proved notably successful in the modern theatre, accustomed to nonrealistic stage techniques and Samuel Beckett's apocalyptic dramas as well as to the contemporary horrors of concentration camp and Gulag. - Norton, 888 Summary of King Lear ACT I This tragedy play tells of the downfall of King Lear and the death of his daughter Cordelia. The play begins with the old Lear, deciding to retire, plans to divide his kingdom between his three daughters Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia.. With his daughters and men gathered around him, Lear asks his daughters, "Which of you shall we say doth love us most?" (Act I, Scene 1. 43). Both Goneril and Regan reply with flattering words of love which satisfied their old father, in turn he gave each of them a third of his kingdom. Cordelia, Lear's favorite daughter, answers with words from her heart, saying that she loves him as much as he loved her and as she should. However, Lear sees her words as disrespectful and demands Cordelia to reply again like how her sisters did, with flattering words.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Carl Orffs Philosophies In Music Education :: essays research papers

While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father's regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff's first attempts at composing. Although Orff was adamant about the secrecy of his past, Moser's Musik Lexicon says that he studied in the Munich Academy of Music until 1914. Orff then served in the military in the first world war. After the war, he held various positions in the Mannheim and Darmstadt opera houses then returned home to Munich to further study music. In 1925, and for the rest of his life, Orff was the head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich where he worked with musical beginners. This is where he developed his Music Education theories. In 1937, Orff's Carmina Burana premiered in Frankfurt, Germany. Needless to say, it was a great success. With the success of Carmina Burana, Orff orphaned all of his previous works except for Catulli Carmina and the En trata which were rewritten to be acceptable by Orff. One of Orff's most admired composers was Monteverdi. In fact, much of Orff's work was based on ancient material. Orff said: I am often asked why I nearly always select old material, fairy tales and legends for my stage works. I do not look upon them as old, but rather as valid material. The time element disappears, and only the spiritual power remains. My entire interest is in the expression of spiritual realities. I write for the theater in order to convey a spiritual attitude.1 What Orff is trying to say here is that he does not use "old" material, but material that is good enough to be used again. If one eliminates the fact that this material was written many years ago, then there is nothing to stop that material from being any less legitimate in recent times. Orff's work in Music Education has been astounding. In the early 1920's, Orff worked with Mary Wigman. Wigman was a pupil of Emile Jaques-Dalcroze, another very influential name in Music Education. In fact, Orff's approach to music is very similar to Dalcroze's, but Orff focuses on education through percussion instruments. In 1924, Orff joined Dorthee Guenther and together

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Struggle for Power in “The Yellow Wallpaper, ” “Daddy, ” and “Editha”

American Literature 9 March 2013 The Struggle for Power in â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,† â€Å"Daddy,† and â€Å"Editha† Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s piece, â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† (written in 1890, published in 1892), is a semi-autobiographical piece that, although believed to be a result of her severe postpartum depression, illustrates the difficulties faced by women during the Women’s Movement. These difficulties are further illustrated by the similarly semi-autobiographical poem, based on Plath’s father and husband, â€Å"Daddy† by Sylvia Plath (written in 1962, published in 1965).These gender roles are then reversed in â€Å"Editha,† (written in 1898, published in 1905) which has been said to be William Dean Howells’s response to the Spanish-American War. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, â€Å"Daddy† by Sylvia Plath and â€Å"Editha† by William Dean Howells all ill ustrate the conflict in gender roles during the Women’s Movement in 19th and 20th Centuries. From the beginning, the narrator in Gilman’s â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† allows men, especially her husband, John, to be superior to her.As a physician, he orders her to stay in bed and discontinue anything stimulating, such as being imaginative or writing. Though she feels better when she writes, and feels it may be beneficial, she does not speak against John but writes in private: â€Å"Personally I disagree with their ideas. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good. But what is one to do? † By asking the end question, she essentially states that she is not her husband’s equal and has no choice but to listen, and is accepting of this.She even follows John’s orders even when he is not present to enforce them: â€Å"John says the very worst thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad. So I will let it alone and talk about the house. † This reaction can be compared to what many people experience today with doctors. Although people usually know what will make themselves feel better, they will most often follow the advice of a doctor instead, simply because physicians are figures of authority. The narrator knows that writing and socializing would help and clearly wants to recover rom her illness, but she allows her husband and brother, who is also a respected physician, to control her treatment. The woman's description of the wallpaper is symbolic of the evolution of her illness. The wallpaper, upon first introduction and description, fully illustrates how the woman regards her illness: â€Å"It is dull enough to confuse the eye in following, pronounced enough to constantly irritate and provoke study, and when you follow the lame uncertain curves for a little distance they suddenly commit suicide-plunge off at outrageous angles, des troy themselves in unheard of contradictions. As Paula A. Triechler states in her paper, â€Å"Escaping the Sentence: Diagnosis and Discourse in ‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’† â€Å"Like all good metaphors, the yellow wallpaper is variously interpreted by readers to represent (among other things) the â€Å"pattern† which underlies sexual inequality, the external manifestation of neurasthenia, the narrator's unconscious, the narrator's situation within patriarchy† (3). This portrays not only how the woman feels about herself and her illness, but also the effect of her husband’s orders.The â€Å"lame uncertain curves† are likely a reference to her husband’s treatment orders, and â€Å"suicide† could very well be the result if followed. The â€Å"unheard of contradictions† express the faultiness of John's methods. At one point she describes his contradictions: â€Å"he says no one but myself can help me out of it, that I m ust use my will and self-control and not let any silly fancies run away with me,† yet, he does not allow her to do as she wills. She describes writing as a relief, but because John has instructed her to stop writing, she lets her imagination run with the lines of the wallpaper.The more she allows her mind to wander, the more confident she becomes, which is reflective in her description of the woman in the wallpaper. The initial description of this woman is of her â€Å"stooping down and creeping about. † The woman in the wallpaper is a direct reflection of the narrator’s confidence and feelings of inferiority, and the change they undergo. Initially, the woman in the wall symbolizes the narrator’s fear of presenting herself and her opinions, and being her husband’s equal. She begins to display a building confidence in herself, and an almost amused view of John's orders.When John tells her that she seems to be doing well, in spite of the wallpaper, sh e has to stop herself from openly laughing. It is at this point, where she is building confidence in herself, that she begins to see the woman in the wallpaper more clearly. She states, â€Å"I think that woman gets out in the daytime! And I’ll tell you why — privately — I've seen her! † symbolizing her confidence beginning to emerge. Finally, she allows herself to be fully confident; she allows her mind to fully explore the wallpaper. The lines, â€Å"then I peeled off all the paper I could reach standing on the floor.It sticks horribly and the pattern just enjoys it,† symbolizes the destruction of that which limits her. One may argue that she has had a psychotic break, but the intention of these lines is to show the narrator gaining confidence. As Gilman says herself in an article submitted to the October 1913 issue of The Forerunner regarding her treatment: â€Å"then, using the remnants of intelligence that remained [†¦] I cast the noted specialist's advice to the winds and went to work again—work [†¦] in which is joy and growth and service, without which one is a pauper and a parasite–ultimately recovering some measure of power. This is the same message as the last lines of the story; â€Å"I've got out at last,† she says to John, â€Å"in spite of you and Jane. And I've pushed off most of the paper so you can't put me back† meaning she can no longer be told what she must do and she is now in control, creeping over the fainted John. Similarly, Sylvia Plath illustrates the path she took to break free, from the memory of her father, in her poem â€Å"Daddy. † Plat compares the confinement her father’s memory has created to a shoe, that for thirty years, she was trapped in, too scared to â€Å"dare to breathe or Achoo. Throughout the poem, Plath uses similes and metaphors to give a dramatic view on the relationship between herself and her father. Plath aligns gypsies and Jewish people with the female figure, and she aligns German Nazis with both male figures, she employs these comparisons to draw women as victims and men as persecutors. Plath continues this description of confinement by saying she is a Jew in â€Å"Dachau, Auschwitz, Belsen. † She continually describes her father as black, and even tells her father: You stand at the blackboard, daddy, In the picture I have of you,A cleft in your chin instead of your foot But no less a devil for that, no not Any less the black man who Bit my pretty red heart in two. She resents her father for abandoning her, yet she still feels bound to his memory, so much so that after burying him at the age of ten, she attempted suicide at twenty trying to â€Å"get back, back, back† to him (â€Å"Daddy† 59). Plath further illustrate this confinement to his memory by explain she married a man who, essentially, was her father but after 7, metaphorically, killed her husband thus freeing her of t he memories of her father. As Guinevara A.Nance and Judith P. Jones explain in â€Å"On ‘Daddy,’† Plath accomplishes, through the use of relative chronological sequencing of childhood memories, and on through the attempted suicide â€Å"to the point at thirty when the woman tries to extricate herself from her image of daddy, is a dramatization of the process of psychic purgation in the speaker† (par. 3). While â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† and â€Å"Daddy† are stories illustrating women breaking free, â€Å"Editha,† by William Dean Howells, is a story of a woman who desires to overpower her betrothed and by doing so pushes him into war.Editha wants a hero in William Dean Howells’s â€Å"Editha† and will not stop short of persuading her betrothed to go off to war to achieve this dream. In this short story gender differences are at play, but in reverse: Editha feels a patriotic duty to her country even if that means going off to war, while George sees war as absurd. In addition, as Philip Furia from the University of Minnesota states in â€Å"Editha†: The Feminine View, Editha’s idealistic mind set is tainted by her â€Å"unconscious desire to disarm her lover† (279).This unconscious desire is illustrated by her excitement in regards to the war, the possibility of George being maimed and her belief that he will be perfect if he enlists. Upon hearing of the war declaration Editha immediately thinks of George and how glorious it would be if he were a war hero. She feels it is a man’s patriotic duty to serve his country, in war; however, she hardly perceives the sacrifice of enlisting, in most cases that sacrifice being the enlisted’s life. Editha is focused on a picture of perfection and how she will appear to others as the woman betrothed to a heroic solider.She believes he would be perfect and worthy of her love if he enlists. George’s feelings about war are qui et opposite and he voices this when he asks â€Å"is it glorious to break the peace of the world? † (â€Å"Editha† par. 9). He clearly finds war to be unnecessary but this belief vanishes after he goes drinking with friends. He then returns to Editha’s house, drunk, to boast about enlisting and his title of Captain. Editha is delighted with his enlistment, even after George tells her of his father, who lost an arm in the Civil War.This story, instead of scaring her as George intends, thrills Editha; she becomes fascination with the idea of George needing her two arms, which would give her superiority (Furia 280). Editha’s preoccupation with overpowering George is evident in her reaction to him, drunkenly, recounting enlisting after which he kisses her in a manner very â€Å"unlike him, that made her feel as if she had lost her old lover and found a stranger in his place,† she finds that â€Å"within her wilfulness she [has] been frightened by a se nse of subtler force in him [sic]† (â€Å"Editha† para. 4). After George has announced his enlistment, Editha is delighted with his near-perfection, but this near-perfection is lost when George’s name is on the list of those killed. She reels not only from grief but from disbelief because her idealistic picture did not include this and, for that reason, she cannot grasp how it could possibly be. Editha goes to visit Mrs. Gearson, as George had asked before deploying, it is then that Editha cries; however, Editha cries with relief because she feels in Mrs.Gearson’s accusation, that girls and women â€Å"think [the soldiers will] come marching back, somehow, just as gay as they went, or if it's an empty sleeve, or even an empty pantaloon, it's all the more glory, and they're so much the prouder of them, poor things! † she has been understood (â€Å"Editha† par. 118). These three pieces delve into the theme of gender inequality which, during the time these pieces were written, was being questioned and changed through the Women’s Movement.These pieces provide three different views of gender conflict: wife versus the superior husband in â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,† daughter versus father and later wife versus husband in â€Å"Daddy,† and man versus the woman who desires superiority in â€Å"Editha. † Works Cited â€Å"Daddy by Sylvia Plath. † Internal. org Poets. N. p. , n. d. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. â€Å"Editha. † William Dean Howells's Short Story. Readbookonline. net, n. d. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. Furia, Philip. â€Å"‘Editha’: The Feminine View. † American Literary Realism, 1870-1910 12. 2 (1979): 278-282. JSTOR. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. Gilman, Charlotte P. Gilman, Why I Wrote The Yellow Wallpaper. † The Department of History. The College of Staten Island/CUNY, 08 June 1999. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. Nance, Guinevara A. , and Judith P. Jones. â€Å"On ‘Daddy’† Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois English Department, n. d. Web. 1 Mar. 2013. â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. † Electronic Text Center. University of Virginia Library, n. d. Web. 01 Feb. 2013. Treichler, Paula A. â€Å"Escaping the Sentence: Diagnosis and Discourse in ‘The Yellow Wallpaper’†Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature. 3. 1/2 (1984): 61-77. JSTOR. Web. 01 Feb. 2013.